Thursday, January 19, 2012

2057.txt

date: Sat, 17 Oct 1998 10:09:48 +0400 (MSD)
from: From <evagatXYZxyzr.krasnoyarsk.su>
to: k.briffaatXYZxyz.ac.uk

trwcrn.rwm
Tree-ring widths (TRW) chronology:

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Ident., Trees, Inent. N (trees)
No. No.
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1) 118 all living and dead 2209-years chronology
2)* 4 MAY,925,927,928, CHA044
3)* 1 CHA-H1
4)* 1 MAY702
5)* 1 NOV001
6)* 1 CHA-H6
7)* 1 NOV078
8)* 1 NOV-A02
9)* 1 CHA005
10)* 1 NOV029
11)* 5 CHA060,012,009,017,001
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* - calibrated radiocarbon age

1) all living and dead 2209-years chronology
2209=N -212=I 1) 118 samples -5(13F6.0)~
23000 24000 42000 14000 27000 21000 13000 28000 20000 30000 38000 65000 58000
54000 66000 65000 16000 55000 46000 56000 53000 68000 29000 21000 48000 15000
29000 25000 32000 22000 31000 29000 18000 27000 53000 41000 35000 47000 66000
89000 52000 28000 34000 39000 33000 25000 28000 36000 32000 43000 47000 63000
49000 49000 50000 56000 40000 42000 46500 65000 28000 30500 55000 40500 44500
24500 24500 50500 6500 22500 39000 37000 54000 30000 47500 41000 23000 52000
56000 46000 35000 44000 71000 53000 73000 87000 64000 53000 44000 52000 48500
41000 45000 50000 61500 42000 48000 58500 44000 50000 78500 62500 46000 73500
45000 90500 64000 99000 64000 53500 90000 80000 45000 64000 87500 37000 55500
74500 88500 61500 58500 66000 88500 76500116500 84500 88500 44500 70500 26000
46000 51000 15000 42000 55000 81000 76000 67000 61000 34000 28000 24000 54000
34000 46000 27000 37000 33000 53000 56000 51000 52000 52000 64000 58000 39000
48000 35000 51000 49000 37000 43000 55000 32000 39000 57000 34000 29000 45000
49000 11000 33000 45000 36000 36000 32000 32000 41000 43000 30000 15000 43000
16000 23000 50000 46000 30000 23000 10000 38000 26000 28000 26000 19000 21000
27000 27000 18000 11000 20000 12000 16000 12000 24000 16000 20000 22000 11000
28000 22017 28065 21856 12882 14098 22014 25112 35140 14161 1219 19996 13315
13517 10704 15207 19702 19134 16446 3039 17992 25257 15901 23191 23203 1000
27479 15919 11296 19473 10860 19530 15335 26299 9411 5291 31041 12069 4539
27818 7493 10411 7919 10605 9945 17887 14974 13111 12423 8397 3226 22759
13618 10784 12556 15426 18972 22968 16454 17000 19389 10860 16583 17472 16410
29186 14931 19302 13833 21143 7466 21325 6210 18981 19848 12337 19850 26400
18285 20246 31337 23294 13450 17941 34285 38733 27586 32435 25338 21392 32594
28435 35517 40156 18777 23268 28298 30149 19095 25926 42906 39255 34173 22065
29118 17902 27172 38119 37347 25090 6500 34301 26855 5941 38507 35826 14832
22651 22197 36162 32763 24581 31479 25689 34191 36718 42915 26990 26878 43824
34625 32174 57385 51360 55039 55054 37906 18168 34882 34761 41604 12657 13161
16197 31916 24132 21855 30630 36385 30745 24153 40741 30006 33620 26577 33367
26186 38229 29349 52789 47438 35978 47997 17548 51853 46033 28743 12085 27608
34020 17925 32088 34944 33101 4081 30879 17446 15978 28435 18335 35868 22251
21528 34309 2773 6384 9014 19779 23547 26701 11470 22866 13911 18834 21164
20124 10157 23354 23804 25057 14675 20483 14798 8351 21108 8335 10598 17069
23246 30087 13235 14254 15864 2164 9347 19932 7031 20000 12181 12757 3687
20469 14247 10620 8746 28494 27058 13708 17022 20529 15788 28236 10115 19326
18135 23963 15390 7162 17279 32849 31069 16989 24420 13018 25653 14928 27235
23283 18571 29915 27266 33951 24041 47844 47675 44769 46163 46952 19771 23019
38639 34723 33079 33469 21124 29181 20774 26725 29081 34518 17204 28940 37208
32775 58976 10594 42606 48863 36946 32213 41849 27432 39733 16259 35834 34341
62407 42028 44445 35859 29798 36765 23502 18434 20274 45121 21526 24560 31877
34800 38334 20428 8781 37238 19716 7604 19439 30829 32487 20464 29784 31750
31928 23184 25438 32931 32310 39233 32585 27749 35201 28107 26776 28485 12709
15027 33760 11325 31204 31662 30223 36039 40012 25509 8772 19157 35361 17630
29531 29212 31187 24300 4562 21532 31632 10503 29400 31222 25730 28030 26917
4688 12078 26173 26710 9482 10246 28444 24912 24827 28289 17974 20492 7018
21514 34516 33310 36256 44727 45114 28650 23419 33516 11778 43465 20220 25175
23955 21139 26410 28461 35890 14156 38692 4772 28678 23572 30616 34457 38619
34856 26276 23577 22361 19873 37267 34284 15317 24184 48975 37987 31429 35273
18054 43859 16763 36500 38608 21093 31207 32854 30413 13416 33594 19433 30082
19389 15758 27999 39612 44671 37417 39594 37086 28268 12974 30605 29249 37753
33663 11363 36143 21306 46288 16113 30107 18372 38803 28205 29546 14434 46587
26678 41108 43586 37374 30224 28331 31544 30825 32838 26578 33066 20678 36675
25315 28839 26035 37685 30226 24501 28528 33510 51162 13581 21995 29417 32967
23924 14920 20805 20512 25141 25598 25703 18462 17040 21751 16046 21996 18069
20342 35014 28332 35165 35442 33871 33850 27816 23579 31256 28535 12889 22552
32800 23463 18168 23192 13514 12918 18007 9645 12635 13072 21150 14148 23932
9018 12498 18710 16600 21805 7213 22851 15759 15814 15200 23895 13963 25953
17684 20987 27162 17110 30437 32360 29106 16759 32655 33595 19709 33258 6052
26222 17722 34334 39148 11789 42244 36821 1797 4814 13594 26070 12939 6916
23229 4446 10246 7540 13714 22299 20476 19088 13476 18404 3900 19064 32509
18843 22990 28820 26310 43229 39537 31840 28824 37437 49123 36642 26598 35534
22271 52498 57130 24689 41995 27017 30140 37749 57837 25520 46108 54090 49658
45089 24465 57550 46258 47711 57767 40029 55404 32947 54873 46590 58746 34993
54879 61748 27910 32067 31872 7046 36295 37264 37901 26789 30777 43434 37700
29501 43272 44470 25658 40156 29332 20015 29524 36727 36948 31928 29953 19737
41447 12328 39805 22439 26927 23239 39549 7098 15840 20929 23772 15353 28007
22955 21463 24290 8873 17708 27278 21769 28332 18403 23837 14195 28935 20013
26065 23293 17814 25742 24984 18238 28932 31088 8914 36008 13544 29850 32271
43589 40051 23543 16407 22265 30511 16002 27839 32794 22413 10217 39905 27802
20776 26814 33852 34807 22456 20637 4815 21855 37894 25930 1818 6596 23364
29193 17672 24675 23853 5993 1193 29426 28114 14413 24810 26160 25576 11685
23679 28930 27702 26763 11733 36410 22337 39023 39591 5069 35118 21200 20396
8735 31218 18536 17272 31415 7196 22859 27298 25531 19425 10399 23570 12696
8352 15032 18992 14626 15444 18765 19280 16423 13234 21223 18692 21367 30821
15418 19031 27041 18009 33393 21949 9369 17344 27753 26670 14494 37218 36654
23904 16576 15594 29869 8638 29094 10394 19081 16729 39305 24061 16216 18959
35626 30247 34454 27558 23983 33922 24609 29676 30460 18236 15331 13953 11694
24988 14321 19124 20936 4785 26340 29808 33539 20732 42390 43144 48471 35663
44234 58963 18491 38119 42704 34253 30509 45563 28242 40627 26959 19787 30831
17054 29454 14203 11907 23517 12541 22802 33360 23233 45317 36219 25209 18721
16921 19920 27720 26663 34059 49228 40157 24209 39570 35193 26808 7585 20873
18554 23309 30212 16812 20517 23079 11592 18401 30493 24638 26735 13995 36813
48920 40278 28927 47026 31865 20986 39037 34740 33252 38718 22690 19176 35577
2580 11231 25408 24867 15897 22064 19354 25936 36895 19666 28904 37001 44624
50833 37233 36536 10932 23639 22069 37132 32183 18924 14646 39770 48286 41257
61823 38685 48732 17881 14121 42920 48009 43173 31532 31883 41708 27496 35394
21644 60068 59735 39445 37137 52625 62747 31373 22840 37017 4124 18122 16422
23362 11732 27172 29596 28005 12863 26527 33936 40401 25001 19088 35345 14541
41458 29285 35867 35215 41416 40820 28276 29922 54348 48932 45189 27202 40680
22536 12274 11911 15438 31847 15518 32623 16994 6958 28295 12391 20124 15200
3872 19066 6154 16046 21994 9883 13803 18203 7738 24826 25802 41665 39420
10082 23138 36672 23293 15780 30997 32336 56083 52873 12327 57182 35586 39138
25576 20923 11457 19626 15096 25439 32855 38655 44821 46423 37342 52026 68594
56632 41091 56548 10213 47772 55599 47835 50947 38083 45772 33426 42712 34339
15275 23257 18921 15782 25821 22725 11567 21104 29535 19800 39800 27438 11278
22770 28603 19851 33342 52927 32471 27769 46087 43229 17067 37574 15950 24974
27458 24971 20471 11634 36141 41870 25253 34853 36198 40878 37941 32716 14577
17551 29037 15527 27155 30336 16565 13659 17427 17985 15333 28674 31912 33061
21280 39694 16494 20841 27794 13885 2565 19240 20764 14003 15234 17235 32861
32447 37592 43724 40821 49210 38946 15957 19545 27864 13492 27344 42029 37682
27146 11498 40925 31045 29398 27439 38022 32927 49087 49043 49449 35359 36962
24378 36666 31602 50729 24814 62188 46992 57665 8994 31133 41369 49188 49729
34232 51923 44904 33188 44207 52862 39145 33680 38792 39171 26952 39862 49060
53489 47236 46363 57434 40117 62997 50508 35887 11315 40273 26840 11259 22813
29683 23477 9655 45503 48217 39129 57846 36584 54067 27905 34950 53044 49242
6346 26682 60001 42356 39453 38095 28854 32367 43999 43182 76475 9980 26734
37163 32521 56584 52948 47244 45685 57133 54086 22626 57892 25345 31469 14592
13839 30265 43116 32693 39278 17673 47578 16717 40561 32427 46271 70501 45415
38845 32493 52634 28619 43829 41729 49462 16162 21579 36292 22750 23572 28727
33052 21509 13640 26083 3888 31372 24734 25512 27071 31571 24681 30374 24534
33169 12625 20093 53206 17146 4073 38241 27796 10701 20413 24781 13696 14691
28574 14242 17157 26778 36497 29876 10106 36171 30465 36840 30557 36331 47945
55943 49453 23943 40887 18421 35653 7226 20925 16290 39092 30054 33829 21976
27694 36015 25317 41708 28307 18924 28561 25760 21980 32029 24752 35831 31853
29046 13943 13463 29012 27598 46246 15320 14192 32116 25571 32122 37198 21309
24451 7718 29199 25351 12890 36031 18695 18575 27989 21409 22320 26659 23255
6836 11240 14685 10076 20696 16281 8961 25734 18756 22537 6889 12456 22313
13306 15308 15505 17235 10645 30885 6203 18640 26682 10589 16431 28376 17826
6304 17627 27904 30156 32025 27955 46022 22728 14528 20370 26056 21896 28926
34096 22612 41428 48536 56094 40957 53286 50459 32060 44338 44482 41154 13807
11326 3297 11426 7576 26075 16469 17875 40687 38680 42653 4189 15048 13883
31267 30324 8534 19704 27760 28691 32492 52563 38623 37560 27673 33206 25809
42342 53294 36139 40726 48492 45376 34414 24610 35000 20567 34436 15964 36710
32282 31438 38330 35359 34186 40505 38729 11085 23307 29585 45856 30278 35038
28031 61066 71654 75101 44821 39539 5015 23301 32435 16773 42902 38394 35250
38140 50031 34522 47063 39538 37625 44671 19419 26965 49777 39253 37798 39380
60435 32630 31485 47937 32777 43802 30784 47142 37691 30497 28847 43470 41648
37101 40726 16574 33858 35558 42346 32535 35480 39239 19817 17962 40171 19816
37158 48680 26345 38391 56809 20909 43281 26427 28300 10520 11234 37255 28329
33247 37494 15393 17142 30050 24568 30868 25822 26042 29408 8962 34690 23488
22172 23157 30993 11397 34005 23622 34032 29107 33019 39124 10729 45917 29799
21484 11154 19750 10963 25793 29698 16148 30739 40478 28837 11405 28409 42056
28589 36331 30851 14922 29795 35541 30907 29046 30087 31996 24960 10172 22222
47286 32457 29091 29240 24873 14528 23808 17266 29730 13252 16810 11011 21315
17198 20894 28959 19943 11296 13434 9382 17430 13696 25412 27865 23093 7885
13852 25494 22304 5032 21311 21766 32202 24233 32537 34665 21149 4541 17197
21595 10014 17248 23052 9932 26619 24058 31319 24079 32681 26048 23140 12880
14733 33067 20015 18721 29651 26843 21754 30090 35288 33385 22382 30894 14728
26071 25792 23771 32227 27265 24298 26117 10108 33626 11545 13202 32819 20454
20939 12584 32712 11446 29923 24529 21244 2000 29325 10270 18780 14979 29992
17247 22835 19369 36933 31079 14026 18997 22716 11568 16741 26364 20229 24592
20948 24879 29982 19867 19478 31888 17419 22989 28106 21737 4936 12040 15016
18961 5235 18167 24849 18367 27222 23919 14306 20386 33748 14910 22044 19999
22210 27410 29148 38037 12635 33100 44025 36026 9169 22049 10997 26327 23360
15028 14360 25476 19163 18067 32330 14489 31136 28690 24305 13269 27592 35264
13291 29446 26123 19894 18688 21564 28586 40368 33895 36981 22843 28835 25897
31387 15225 17297 21077 21867 12440 14398 19166 13061 11008 20385 14993 7768
23283 20160 17045 26833 22701 26387 23256 27723 21111 32775 7176 14600 6560
4525 15770 14353 9099 15162 24470 36183 31308 31823 19556 30681 26487 20038
29204 35066 17925 36458 32013 32462 8064 28601 25226 27308 24907 17930 24206
28880 26326 46087 11387 42678 40037 31112 25112 32453 36598 19521 23389 36012
27063 36490 35092 22232 9785 37702 38043 30604 35077 43926 47220 41646 34102
26212 39082 25302 17634 23170 24958 41060 25989 17794 6167 29321 25024 31646
23853 40694 40252 44804 27458 47022 24027 27829 24725 8566 25765 37958 26832
44567 34530 16105 27248 26055 34928 27453 39903 34871 26434 37469 24709 39487
30218 22976 28462 41952 49108 25851 32901 22448 18331 29066 10315 28571 29070
32664 32870 28318 40625 10357 35280 25849 23649 19720 8395 12389 17508 13577
16774 11858 18736 6479 12156 19628 23655 22221 18061 6689 17556 20901 29764
30796 7261 32870 14236 5948 23671 27600 21503 20273 15348 15678 27342 22366
27979 21643 19756 20343 27883 18753 21325 9415 21976 11436 37690 27274 28101
25355 33940 30386 34422 25320 52582 45733 36687 35368 37902 42693 22233 16666
45695 7105 21338 22127 26892 13168 12589 29874 19946 38389 42508 38118 44281
34808 34262 42548 20033 17134 18463 34504 32362 18734 22133 37281 30119 18316
28807 26584 45163 45681 23834 13205 14869 29485 27289 22233 23254 13266 19679
17399 43549 17745 22862 19067 10631 18321 26515 32895 29419 28948 38780 37180
30926 21697 33762 31089 41763 25857 40686 14920 39838 35513 36599 27497 43523
38081 35011 32143 40349 36135 43614 51856 50396 67195 57225 61241 41440 65260
48097 28219 48738 24261 40273 29658 36309 51236 32544 40954 36983 33193 27788
32247 29070 28358 30658 23016 35060 22024 25796 37168 21417 28881 28177 23317
24240 15012 13238 22566 26812 17797 23989 38457 13285 22011 26412 25138 40011
18164 32288 21720 33763 9829 29992 21171 21000 10000 24000 12000 19000

2) MAY,925,927,928, CHA044
296=N -670=I 2) 4 samples (MAY925,927,928, CHA044) -5(13F6.0)~
42000 76000 35000 37000 35000 27000 47000 24000 95000105000128000 94000102000
51000 37000 26000 38000 30000 35000 20000 37000 19000 16000 39000 50000 44000
78000 44000 69000 79000 66000 31000 55000 32000 34000 17000 51000 22750 26000
55000 55250 43500 37750 28250 61250 33750 55500 28750 51750 38500 42000 22250
39250 46750 41750 32500 39250 23000 34000 15000 22750 3250 9250 21000 24250
15250 26500 13250 15500 33750 50750 27500 9750 48000 67500 71500 70500 54500
59000 54500 44750 31000 23250 42250 26250 44750 54750 56000 44750105500 44000
33250 43250 30750 47250 40750 34000 33750 50750 59250 43500 72000 42000 35250
42500 37500 47750 51000 84750 47000 73000 28500 59000 56750 46000 58000 28000
23500 16000 13500 25500 27000 49500 31500 58000 80000 83000 73000 35500 74750
43750 16750 12000 43000 27750 24750 26250 45250 43250 35250 38000 49500 35000
14250 41000 44000 36500 39000 16750 54750 60250 65500 54250 36750 57250 63778
58250 88583 83250 72250 97563117313 75875 75750 76250 38000 85563 82938 92500
77313 98125 28250 33313 51688 42063 73438 49938 92375 32563 65125 48188 55125
51688 63250 48125 82688 57188 99813 74313 63750 85625 39063 58563 87750 77438
19063 79563 58750 35063 47750 36188 56750 63125 65938 49917 91833 41833 60833
55917 94083 58083 66417 84167 84250115167102750103417 52583 72333 52000 86917
92167 58167 37750 41583 43000 40333 65417 43750 58667 18667 34250 52667 77583
46917 48417 37583 54500 45833 64417 41000 28167 44417 39000 33500 23111 7167
27667 40000 14500 13833 34500 20667 28833 35333 36000 16167 29667 32667 28500
23167 32833 33667 21167 29500 18167 23500 29333 23167 19167 18750 14750 12750
27250 19500 19000 12250 8250 21000 24000 7000 21000 26000 28500 24000 18000
10500 21000 9000 10000 7000 8000 16000 3000 13000 8000

3) CHA-H1
306=N -1398=I 3) 1 sample (CHA-H1) -3(20F4.0)~
710 520 595 790 500 760 775 425 640 410 295 115 295 405 335 305 245 575 465 365
11701070 710 630 430 315 615 640 625 540 365 310 755 295 665 550 460 90 565 735
905 310 755 425 660 590 690 640 765 770 640 405 645 475 595 490 705 480 760 840
375 415 675 650 650 390 770 935 815 465 660 705 980 645 595 920 715 280 490 400
925 7501015 890 740 9201085 595 685 755 440 260 450 160 215 430 235 515 695 505
300 605 395 530 120 60 420 500 480 260 510 485 420 515 765 475 395 675 265 475
455 465 740 690 280 705 670 795 480 465 455 940 5551210 855 805 740 790 85 465
405 340 615 735 280 115 510 685 610 165 280 500 765 760 960 685 715 385 300 555
325 365 235 305 55 215 410 415 600 65 415 315 130 35 200 135 500 295 360 330
510 415 755 765 490 305 185 145 45 225 315 215 335 325 200 165 270 255 305 280
315 160 410 345 415 340 325 385 340 185 405 100 365 250 315 320 415 355 125 410
425 235 270 540 415 340 470 295 525 375 385 235 320 320 125 175 140 80 155 225
265 255 50 30 170 150 80 50 135 80 65 230 285 430 295 195 245 340 245 255
285 405 290 395 390 450 250 400 225 250 385 325 285 400 325 315 475 170 85 55
95 235 180 290 235 400 495 585 640 465 280 510 350 740 5601100 930 380 400 580
350 650 500 540 510 580

4) MAY702
270=N -2456=I 4) 1 sample (MAY702) -2(26F3.0)~
83 71101 76 62 66 89124144164 11 95 99 74 70 78 85122 55178202161102130153109
123128153124147152 68173 97131147134111 94 80106 55 72 98 22 58 28 66 76 36 73
2 65 27 32 48 43 56 39 18 43 33 17 33 36 30 31 15 39 28 37 33 27 23 32 30 16
29 21 17 25 29 18 35 35 36 15 28 25 26 23 21 26 25 16 14 16 21 31 26 2 20 16
30 32 26 23 25 40 9 20 35 41 17 12 20 17 13 26 18 25 13 29 20 12 23 15 14 10
10 19 11 15 12 17 12 10 16 9 10 2 18 14 10 16 5 13 5 4 9 7 12 10 19 21
13 16 14 32 6 16 27 18 14 9 18 7 11 21 17 11 13 5 16 14 21 17 14 12 14 19
16 18 15 21 22 17 13 26 4 21 7 9 14 7 23 26 29 8 15 17 13 18 13 12 12 12
13 16 16 16 7 21 6 7 4 16 18 5 10 11 9 24 9 18 13 10 11 7 3 12 5 9
11 7 11 10 12 40 34 9 16 2 10 13 13 2 8 5 2 6 3 9 2 8 4 6 8 10
6 3 14 6 13 9 6 2 5 9

5) NOV001
246=N -2923=I 5) 1 sample (NOV001) -2(26F3.0)~
2 24 4 46 49 46 31 20125114115 71 33115148130 81 58 75107104 57119179106182
169117127160187162143170102174 60112 93 34 17 72 76 86100 94109125137 62104133
139 89 99 61 92 40 94 67 16 93 86136 90 60 60 40 78 79 79133 74 81120159 82103
70 52 72 36 83 65 39108 68 79142127 56 83116138133 62 71 51 77 49113128103158
106 51 54 71 88 70149 60 14 26 43 23 89 35 64100 84 67108 78 48 52 44 22 52 52
57 13 64 29 43 22109 71 47 37 89 74 93 82 29 52 50 34 64 53 16 8 32 19 38 18
20 46 40 36 49 15 17 47 43 15 19 31 49 26 29 36 19 25 53 8 36 35 52 46 22 29
26 43 31 42 22 14 46 48 17 30 49 17 60 51 48 43 32 42 33 21 21 13 28 24 20 38
40 73 37 36 41 48 47 13 73 28 45 24 46 18 34 33 13 59 21 38 51 22 28 24 31 28
25 17 10 10 16 23 14 26 14 20 11 18

6) CHA-H6
345=N -3178=I 6) 1 sample (CHA-H6) -2(26F3.0)~
71 90 55 99 41 94 87138157143113 98188184168144147136 66 91 65 26 95 87 62 58
93 21 50106 79 61 68 50 85 21101 68 96 73 94 84 65 71 78 46 91 81 79 64 73 33
49 39 71 42 82102 67 23 26 49 11 55 60 71103 91 65 61 68 38 42 47 42 50 33 37
63 50 62 90104 87 26 58 72 52 17 9 32 22 18 44 67 78 40 76 29 62 63 57 29 4
20 31 30 16 31 51 55 52 42 28 15 50 72 58 73 59 71 67 34 29 48 29 51 41 61 20
31 11 34 43 40 31 45 19 44 39 48 56 29 41 11 40 44 30 40 27 32 58 5 81 18 16
31 6 38 6 44 67 15 52105 63 97 67 33 29 43 47 87 70 39 76 63 79 54 83 33 43
57 4 24 55 85 68 72 75 40 44 27 42 29 54 67 43 47 31 33 19 4 20 26 34 38 47
13 17 30 24 38 5 20 19 15 12 29 19 43 25 24 31 4 20 19 20 3 34 2 52 26 42
28 46 31 42 36 17 31 6 28 34 64 35 33 34 7 22 14 31 7 22 5 20 7 15 4 15
13 2 37 24 8 22 34 32 19 27 31 56 27 2 28 10 21 37 18 20 9 27 18 27 9 7
1 11 5 27 26 36 52 40 50 42 14 23 4 25 10 38 26 40 56 35 72 38 74 80 32 42
39 20 14 28 25 8 23 28 23 44 29 54 79 28 29 36 39 45 86 94 11 51 8 3 28 5
13 15 11 6 18 1 26

7) NOV078
299=N -3358=I 7) 1 sample (NOV078) -2(26F3.0)~
55 86139 68 20 40136142152115153161154170 95134136113106101 83119184 81166118
92 18 78160117118 84 90132114 43112123 60 52 34 30 30 8 52 9 21 30 13 49 3
58 52 18 25 22 33 24 60 27 44 32 39 18 33 43 60 72 81 75 67116 87 25 81 38 41
41 71 80 93 53 34 78 67 75 82 48 66 18 49 36 41 21 6 10 44 90 53 23 63 98 33
68 83 50104 88 70 66 60 82 65 41 80 88111 41 45 48 60 29 47 46 50 58 73 50 90
39 73 46 68 27 68 93 55 51 83 80 40 43 72 23 40 77 86 91 60 67 47 20 20 32 50
32 37 41 30 31 30 23 19 40 12 27 46 56 58 31 30 20 16 33 30 48 25 22 36 41 50
24 42 28 20 46 44 19 18 25 23 22 8 37 42 25 6 22 10 20 18 25 29 20 22 23 13
17 18 36 20 33 32 6 25 26 37 37 33 16 27 38 18 45 41 29 44 42 57 27 53 17 16
32 17 7 20 22 20 17 22 7 14 7 18 16 6 18 25 24 19 34 14 14 17 15 10 29 24
40 53 10 47 29 15 35 27 39 32 22 63 28 49 50 64 47 21 34 9 29 27 12 21 34 20
43 31 34 31 32 14 41 59 42 34 25 33 24

8) NOV-A02
286=N -3457=I 8) 1 sample (NOV-A02) -5(13F6.0)~
83000 84500 67500 62000 50500 64500106500 96500 75500 82500 83000 83000 84500
94000 73000 73000 64500 72000 75500 94000 93000 52667 66667 56333 53000 57000
35333 46000 8000 5500 24000 32500 30000 19000 22000 37000 27500 37500 22500
29500 33000 32500 54500 70500 42000 61000 69000 84000 68000 73500 52000 70500
77000 91000112500 59000 14500 80000 47000 74500 64000116500 56500 88000 89500
54500 56000 83000 58000 21000 67500 86500 85500 97000 86000 94500109000 70500
65500 52000 82500 50500 39500 48500 49500 55000 54500 57000 47500 45000 66000
77000 78000 76000 54000 68000 58500 21000 28000 14500 46500 29000 48500 37000
41500 19000 28000 29500 31000 38500 22000 11500 28500 25500 28000 27500 34000
22000 30000 62500 49500 38500 38000 47000 43000 46500 39500 39000 44000 40500
45500 38500 74500 38500 42000 22500 30000 46000 41000 22500 37000 31500 19500
4000 12500 26000 32000 43000 37500 43000 53000 72500 62500 46000 58500 7000
25500 40500 51000 64000 89000 70000 81000 47500 77500 20500 70000 84000 71000
76000 56000 54500 76500 59500 35000 51000 62500 39500 41500 28500 48000 23000
25500 28500 36000 4000 21000 20000 13500 6500 12500 5500 21000 14500 21500
14000 5000 12500 2000 32500 28000 26500 29000 9000 29000 37500 22500 14000
41000 22000 1500 5000 23000 11500 19000 20000 26000 24000 29000 15000 11500
28000 21500 26500 42000 22000 22000 8500 22000 18000 8500 7500 16500 20500
30500 18500 39500 22000 17000 28500 21000 30000 49500 35500 54000 34500 65500
53000 55500 44500 43500 75000 76000 56000 63500 39500 37000 10500 38000 48000
53000 67500 82000 71000 89500103500 85500 83000107000 67000105500117500 78000
123000139500 97500122000 99500 78500 60000 69000 76000 66500 67500 44500 11000

9) CHA005
198=N -3513=I 9) 1 sample (CHA005) -2(26F3.0)~
28 66 47 28 20 50 50 36 44 38 29 38 25 22 19 17 10 18 9 16 9 10 16 19 18 19
13 14 16 12 10 22 17 17 23 34 38 40 37 67 92 56 41 52 60 47 57 52 77100 90103
80 49 50 56 38 47 34 44 25 31 47 65 94 91 39 29 62 40 60 44 34 33 43 41 49 34
63 56 38 43 44 41 33 38 37 38 48 30 46 31 15 13 16 30 41 43 51 50 43 56 69 67
30 37 52 59 43 44 53 43 64 52 40 47 17 34 35 35 52 26 32 52 43 44 16 10 37 44
28 39 33 39 38 56 27 58 33 58 79 67 38 24 38 30 38 39 44 19 34 32 28 25 29 27
25 30 57 55 40 34 47 49 51 37 34 35 24 17 28 35 43 38 56 62 88 79 81 69 85 38
60 73 78 52 73 38 53 81109121 93 85124116145141

10) NOV029
306=N -3634=I 10) 1 sample (NOV029) -2(26F3.0)~
129159235264201202138213132154 98111136129125115106 62100126101107108104175111
43 15 47 53 54108 83119 57 64 81 71 74 44 30 72 82 43 38 82 43 41117 98 98102
68 74 88 57 47 78 61 94124168 58 41 32 51 45 44 33 37 35 33 19 62 51 65 78132
77 90 94 79 60 60 21 16 8 21 57 61 45 67 47 64 21 53 58 59 86 50 62 60 52 27
74 73 76 61 52 67 45 30 27 25 17 12 11 2 12 9 29 12 23 17 9 18 2 35 17 31
58 41 67 50 52 22 60 40 13 42 28 31 46 60 34 37 23 31 55 32 59 53 27 37 18 36
23 27 27 13 8 34 35 24 23 27 20 13 28 33 17 42 31 37 32 35 38 35 35 52 42 54
33 35 36 45 19 20 20 18 32 33 26 46 30 53 24 55 25 46 57 39 35 69 55 37 42 41
22 34 59 51 49 53 67 46 19 26 47 45 45 60 46 25 39 47 38 24 47 21 30 46 34 57
30 18 21 18 39 28 34 21 26 26 15 32 16 29 25 13 33 28 29 17 25 14 31 14 39 37
33 3 23 5 25 13 19 25 14 26 31 13 7 8 36 15 22 21 3 20 19 24 24 23 13 17
35 18 26 24 13 31 30 37 17 23 17 10 16 12 7 21 13 12 9 9

11) CHA060,012,009,017,001
685=N -3964=I 11) 5 samples (CHA060,012,009,017,001) -5(13F6.0)~
29500 20500 15000 24000 33000 36500 10000 11000 12500 13500 10500 5500 7000
7000 10000 4500 3000 6500 9500 16000 13000 16000 5500 7000 9000 11000
13500 22000 15000 15500 13500 12500 4500 6000 7000 9000 21000 23000 42000
14000 17000 5000 5000 14000 22000 21000 17000 15000 12000 15000 17000 16000
10500 10000 15000 6000 22000 8500 17500 15000 34000 27000 12500 9500 14000
14000 13500 9500 15500 17000 9000 5000 8000 8000 8000 9000 7500 4500
7500 12500 15000 26500 19000 20500 32000 39500 23500 35000 29000 27000 19000
21000 20500 22500 24500 26500 23500 41500 32500 43000 56000 33000 44000 77000
45500 59000 29000 55500 35500 24000 41500 51500 48000 44500 42500 48500 33000
26500 22000 30500 30500 32000 50500 40000 29000 11000 19000 21000 13500 25500
25500 30000 5000 5500 18500 6500 31000 14000 35000 32500 15000 42000 50500
57000 22500 50000 57000 53000 64099 21470 9631 18304 35842 46483 57075 55743
62066 81774 72528 56319 37556 34971 50015 39598 21283 53422 56443 68633 77002
39117 41629 35335 29859 38102 46170 39393 53294 51532 57480 43041 48908 45052
22796 30368 71920 47418 38804 16721 18342 30597 39246 54877 44497 63724 47343
56569 41014 35417 57015 38640 55746 40256 38815 28450 28771 35747 40459 40367
43102 37881 33733 53481 52421 41144 57534 49544 62108 48135 32065 49386 40716
19883 31000 43000 54000 65000 30000 19000 53000 34000 31000 51000 38000 30000
39000 54000 31000 41000 24000 5000 26000 30000 37000 28000 27000 36000 52000
51000 83000 94000 57000 27000 28000 40000 34000 53000 47000 35000 30000 51000
60000 53000 45000 26000 22000 15000 47000 40000 41000 36000 29000 41000 32000
30000 46000 28000 21000 44000 47000 61000 26000 39000 31000 23000 27000 34000
17000 17000 14000 22000 26000 27000 42000 39000 37143 36479 34282 15973 46985
41586 45817 35541 34462 33297 57851 38141 39830 58005 52402 64245 61268 95274
77879 79103 44527 73461 67818 51382 66915 48836 58044 48542 60188 50493 34297
21814 30343 27318 19330 31028 37674 22448 25890 20938 27414 34284 36175 22814
22155 18932 34119 28429 46027 39944 28606 37674 58716 57737 33924 59131 47706
67784 57924 47264 56184 23589 35398 50320 59990 41211 56298 48331 56917 46614
60352 73078100871 72100100826 46340 71674 67785 70748 65034 57059 83787 82437
97654102262 97603 96917110019 72257 67592 83499 86173107194 53370 83050 71618
72105 62601 70925 75670 71983 92814 83718 69543 58714 54920 59474 43291 66602
48121 79532 69034 25023 50577 63493 77587 77307 56182 45723 67844 49108 75721
46890 84507 77881 70337 46438 52629 60915 50684 57532 58031 43993 32527 61223
52640 49079 42544 53483 61960 79030 66823 73806 32689 35046 18242 62750 55673
61686 52388 77760 33551 53130 63936 65666 51292 68383 50993 61192 60891 43838
56876 51626 58651 36797 26491 52839 38990 52762 33637 22651 49848 53290 66765
72486 53265 79909 30593 34434 40624 45162 24607 27409 45092 66972 71704 67281
33133 53007 43198 57953 62357 38773 42726 57282 60859 38621 38300 31630 48192
51651 34748 43513 36436 50128 54668 29234 31987 36751 31569 37721 13337 42200
40125 59482 44299 19273 30587 26770 18675 28352 53830 37686 33647 20975 22003
24719 35767 26587 26669 18037 25899 19415 22622 31868 31603 11966 28692 25282
11026 24117 27808 12843 15031 12381 21029 14078 17673 24989 21396 13818 36290
32305 30660 18314 40216 43074 55488 30400 52655 48880 80052 64740 40598 78201
38192 61936 43419 22177 17147 17388 5300 24236 32535 13552 16430 13265 21525
11911 36666 10407 31224 29079 21922 39323 27000 26000 45000 41000 55000 41000
57893 51388 45397 21782 37218 35585 31277 19650 31069 5221 17963 30678 39867
11885 34455 16000 12500 12500 31000 47500 19000 33500 24500 13000 42000 29000
17000 44000 37000 34500 31500 55500 28500 32500 32000 25500 17000 26000 29000
10500 27000 34000 32000 14000 11000 24000 27000 8000 14000 10000 16000 24000
18000 26000 20500 26000 35500 48500 42500 38000 43500 29500 32500 44000 47000
56000 55000 74500 66000 67000 80000 31000 52000 64000 81000 34000 39000 17000
43000 29000 61000 60000 47000 65000 79000114000 22000 68000 59000113000 54000
103000106000110000 58000 82000107000133000180000178000

tem-rcs.rwm
Temperature reconstructed:
1) Early summer temperature reconstructed, RCS-RES chronology
2) Early summer temperature reconstructed, RCS-RES chronology (5-years moving average)
3) Annual temperature reconstructed, RCS-chronology (5-years moving average)

1) Early summer temperature reconstructed, RCS-RES chronology
2072=N -77=I TJJ -4(13F6.0)~
150043131332106186 94108 55646 60349 66041119600 86633105443 73367 90395 86782
117175117224102770101186 98365116284103958 74753 94355 75545106681103513 82673
95246111730 74902 91385117818 77971 77228104255107077 48370 92672109750 93019
95197 84505 85990103166104602 81089 59210111680 63814 83614128906111334 82673
70942 52181110096 87623 92177 87623 73565 82475 94058 92969 76634 66437 86039
72971 84208 77228 99058 81683 88564 90890 68665103562 92771104008 87970 67279
74753 93910 99701117719 67031 44410 91930 77575 83911 78119 85594 95345 91138
83564 55795 92128105196 82426 97919 92524 45944109750 79654 73268 93712 71041
93316 82921104057 66338 61735117719 72377 62576112423 62972 76931 72724 78367
80693 95741 86782 81188 79505 71437 64358107324 83218 77872 81485 84950 93118
98662 81634 82624 87277 70348 86089 87227 84257110047 75100 86485 74951 91583
64804 96830 63913 94108 94108 75595 92672101335 82030 87227106928 86287 68566
80792113017117521 89851 95147 79010 75446101137 90742104849109205 64556 79505
90742 95296 76486 90544120244104503 93068 69308 85940 69259 92029110789103909
80050 48469105592 90148 55894119551103958 66190 85346 81386109057100097 81931
100048 85198102919105097107423 75991 79010111631 92029 89851132965111581115442
110245 75842 49112 89851 93167108611 55993 62032 73714104057 90395 84752 97721
103414 91435 80000108364 86138 94058 81733 93761 82574104701 86831126778109700
85594107869 51736122422107324 75149 53320 86039101038 73664102671102028 96236
45004101236 74555 77278103463 78515113858 82129 81485106730 43816 63022 72823
95939103166102968 68714 92326 73417 86485 91979 87524 68962 97226 95246 96286
74060 86386 75743 66437 97177 68368 77674 91930100988112076 70744 75298 80495
54310 78713101285 70397101582 78416 80198 62873101978 85247 77179 74456116977
107522 73615 82723 88960 80000110987 64309 90247 86930 99652 79852 61487 90395
124303113561 75347 92524 64556 96781 74357103166 92771 80792107374 95890109997
83911135143125590112472112522108760 49756 70546112522102770101434 99157 69259
95395 77674 95840101830111136 69209 95147111581 98959155240 36490120095127718
94702 90544107819 75347110591 57131108463103859162071104552105245 84901 74506
100246 72130 69506 80396136975 78713 88762103265105245113809 68962 48766120739
77525 57923 89702110740112126 81832100394100147 99652 80891 86435103661100345
113611 94256 83069101434 85000 86089 91534 59606 73318115393 64408111829105196
97127109057110294 77179 47776 79010115294 76783104354 97573 98860 84950 44707
88366108413 65150107720103067 89009 95197 86534 47083 71635101533100394 66982
70249105740 95692 94900 97523 73912 82871 58814 92969116977107423108562116927
113561 77327 71041 96187 54805128857 72872 86584 86237 79109 95098 96830109502
63368115789 44360101978 90692102374109552109552 98612 79406 77179 79060 78961
117373105443 64556 87623135589105592 91435 97028 60200123164 62824110789111532
70051 99157 98315 93662 60745108562 75595103265 79307 72476103810124204128461
102028102473 94504 77822 52379 97375 95147114155101533 51488109997 76139131728
63913 95890 72625116977 93316 93860 63418133658 85396117422114205 94405 83218
81040 92375 93959 99602 85940101384 74060112621 85099 94256 89059113611 94949
77971 89405 99652135292 51488 77426 94900102424 86386 67328 82525 84158 96434
96187 93316 77723 76931 89554 78218 93415 83812 88811118759 97127109552104305
97573 94652 82277 77575 97919 96385 62675 90940112175 90643 79753 86188 66734
72872 87574 70249 81139 82228 98414 81337100691 66833 77723 92672 85742 97721
63071 99602 81436 82376 82624103315 78020105641 81782 88960102374 76040107374
105889 94652 68764104156102869 73565104948 45845 96880 79555113215118066 56092
121432101384 34955 55795 76436105146 79753 67675 98464 60299 78119 73664 85297
101335 93118 87425 74753 84851 59111 92474114106 82228 90643 96286 88861119254
104453 87029 82327 98068117719 91682 74110 92078 70249128263127916 64853100493
70843 83812101830131480 70100108859116878104354 97969 60596124550100741103909
119600 81782113561 72229116185 99602119600 76139111185120491 60002 78812 80990
44756109601106087104503 85544 90346113611 98959 83861110096107869 72130104255
81040 68714 96385108017106483 93613 87772 68764117373 56389118759 78763 89356
84950115096 49013 75298 88168 93811 79555105839 89999 86683 92672 58963 84703
104701 89702101335 76486 88861 70843103067 83218 95543 88564 76436 95098 91435
78416100939100741 56488115541 65150102919104849119798108166 70397 62032 80099
100196 73219 99107104354 80990 61240121531 91336 79703 92672102127103364 77476
76040 49360 92128122867 92474 46390 61685 98563109849 84257 95147 88960 54854
54656114898106334 77179 97177 93316 92573 65794 92722101879 97127 94256 61438
115987 82673118412113066 37430111581 77179 81683 62923110690 82129 81683111383
54409 96484102622 95098 83267 63022 96533 72773 68615 86683 95147 84703 86188
91781 90940 84059 76931 96335 88564 96137114848 72179 84604102919 79208119056
85891 57181 83960108067100196 71882122620112175 81238 68318 69754108265 59755
112373 64408 88168 84554131530 90197 71486 80347115591102523108859 88069 79406
104255 82079 96484 96583 69704 70199 71783 72229103909 78317 88118 89900 56983
105592106631108908 79604118709111383116878 88217102226127669 48271 96286102869
87326 86386111581 77080104057 77476 68219 93910 69160 97127 69110 69160 93860
71882 93613107770 84406121234 96137 75941 69061 69506 81089 96583 92227101879
121036 97919 70744 97919 89009 78713 52528 80198 79951 90247100345 74308 82376
86881 68516 84109101978 88663 91534 68714106483121036 99800 79802106978 80050
68219101632 91435 91138100939 71486 71338100048 47182 72080 96632 92722 79406
87722 81089 92722108463 74605 91336101533109700115640 87128 85346 48023 78367
79852105146 95246 71932 68714108859117323101087127174 81634 99355 53171 56983
110542113710104008 81782 81386 99107 76387 91286 70942130391121630 85000 83168
104849119105 70397 63269 89900 43667 79258 78614 90643 73763 96979 97028 91286
67625 90494100592107869 80297 71239 99256 65398114452 88811 98068 95642102077
99800 77575 83614124451109502101038 68912 95395 67477 58765 67328 77773109948
77377107176 74258 59161103265 70645 89702 79703 59309 93217 67427 89455 98464
71536 81980 88366 68269103364 99503124550111383 50251 81683106879 81584 72922
101483100493143657125045 40747135787 84653 98266 75298 67031 59408 83366 78367
99998111185115195120343114749 91930120788146875113957 82228115244 22729119353
132124110245117422 82822103513 80446105344 88811 53072 81436 75446 75991101632
90989 68120 94553109651 84752130144 90692 55547 89801100889 83020115145149399
91187 81733121729109255 54508108364 57329 88960 98117 89603 83218 63962122917
128263 84653105988101978111532103661 89504 52726 69655101384 72724104008105146
71585 71090 81089 86188 82673111977111581108017 77674121283 63022 80495 98959
65843 50993 93712 95147 81040 84208 85297117422109403113759118214104008118511
86584 47281 66190 88762 67180 99454117175102968 82178 55201111779 91484 90247
86435101335 91930118165110938106136 80396 85247 67972 95246 85000115492 71536
131183 98909112918 36935 80941101335112274108809 78911106433 93860 78169 98711
108760 84158 79555 88514 90494 75892 97622108166110789 97771 93860108809 81436
118165 95098 74803 45944 97672 79604 62477 85693 93365 84851 65695120541115838
96830122026 79802109849 68021 84505115640104552 39658 81634133757 99899 96533
89207 73912 87079107275103364154349 33322 73763 94751 85643131233112918101731
100097116482107918 53666123461 62081 83564 59854 64160102077120145 96484104255
61883118759 60794107522 91088109601146132 90940 82129 73615110641 73070103117
97672108314 54112 70546 99305 76882 84554 91534 96682 77674 67081 90791 55201
107275 91138 90197 92227 94801 82970 92771 81931 96088 62873 80000133312 66338
52825111284 89356 65992 84703 88514 72575 78218 99899 73516 81733 96236107770
93415 59260105542 89999100840 88811 93019109997115046100889 60349 91336 60250
93365 55052 80990 77377110294 93365 94850 75545 84554 97820 80495106087 81733
69754 88366 82426 80149 95840 82475 99454 90692 85099 64507 68615 95840 91534
117620 64952 66982 96979 85148 98018101335 73120 82723 57824 97622 90544 70447
109453 75001 78515 94603 80050 84604 89950 83119 60101 72179 80000 74951 93415
82871 70694 97177 82574 88663 64259 75397 92078 76783 81931 80792 84059 74110
106730 62477 86237 97424 68219 82723 99256 79109 63665 84406 99404100889 99701
87871114601 71882 63467 78565 89257 85297 96484100939 78911114601119105124897
92029110641102176 71140 99602 98563 94504 50746 55745 51884 76486 75248107869
85247 85396122075108166110740 39262 67378 71635106829102275 60398 83614 95494
96236101533128312 94801 93910 75793 86732 78119108710122917 87178 95642105196
97820 81634 68417 90593 69704 97870 67675104156 94058 90494101285 91633 89999
99355 94157 52082 79753 91187116779 88069 93019 80198131678139153132866 80149
72971 26095 73961 95692 73219119006101137 92870 96533110789 83564105592 89455
87227100592 60002 80396118462 96236 94702 93811123263 75743 78416105889 79703
102721 79852106433 90098 79357 80594104107 99800 91633 96236 57874 92128 94949
104305 87871 90643 95791 65843 70150107374 73120104552116333 74951 98068121778
60695103810 73516 81040 59408 65893112571 92870 99998101483 61982 72031 95345
85841 97820 85990 85396 91633 58468106235 83861 83069 86188 96187 64309105641
83960101483 90544 94058103463 53864119650 86039 74506 62675 79654 70051 99355
102572 74951101632112324 86435 59161 92128114056 88267101978 87277 60943 94652
102721 93464 90098 89752 93167 81188 58369 86287130391 96434 89405 86683 78664
66190 88811 77575103117 70496 79604 70892 92425 85049 91187104305 81980 67477
75001 69952 90346 82525104305103859 89207 59111 75496100543 92722 59210 94702
92227112324 91435104255104552 73912 46439 80842 92375 71239 89603 97523 68665
106483 95048107176 88118103018 86881 81782 64606 73664114799 83465 81584102176
91732 83564100196106285 99602 76634 95098 63319 93118 92821 87871105790 90643
84901 89455 58270112274 64408 74011115640 83119 87623 69556111383 65546106582
91435 82723 48815108760 67922 89950 81881108958 80594 91633 83168117175100345
63616 78515 86633 68120 84554102424 86732 95989 85099 92524101978 78713 80594
105839 73763 89455 98216 82871 53221 73862 82525 92672 65249 91682101087 85247
101929 88762 70051 85544108958 70991 88267 82723 87475 98761 98117109750 59012
102077118412 98266 50300 79951 62576 99503 93712 75100 76090 96286 83663 83020
108265 69605103661 94801 84752 67427 94454107176 65497 99157 88613 78169 80248
85198 98810117620 98860101285 72278 86980 84257 96583 67328 75793 85495 87871
72328 78317 87425 76436 75446 93415 81287 69457100246 89653 83416101186 88019
95147 87128 94553 81188104552 53419 75446 63715 65101 92969 86732 76387 87871
102176117521100691 96731 71041 93563 85198 76090 95939103463 71239107869 94108
94553 51785 93761 87970 93118 89356 74258 88861 96731 90593124699 54607117472
105889 86683 79852 90989 98464 69605 81733104453 86435105097 97771 73021 56636
112472108859 93365 99949110096112868 99454 83416 71833101137 76882 68764 84554
88762120491 85891 70793 53023103166 94504106285 87178115789109502113215 76436
113314 67625 82376 81188 53369 97276117620 91088122372 93217 58765 88168 86089
106532 89752111185 97078 79654102473 76139108512 88514 75892 90791114799124154
73862 89801 70051 69209 97177 60893101929 99206102622100840 87128110542 50746
106285 85396 83069 79753 58567 74654 87326 80594 88118 76684 90395 66190 79802
94108 98612 92474 81733 60695 86089 92474107918104701 55102109205 68615 59210
100444101929 89554 85891 73912 78070103463 90395100790 82723 79505 83218 98711
80099 86633 63665 91732 71932124352 96385 94355 86386 99998 93217100345 81485
131134110146 89059 87970 92177104255 67081 64012123511 46786 86089 87079 94999
72179 72229107522 84158120739119204102325112076 87673 89306105047 61586 66041
75248109799104305 74704 83317112175 94850 72773 95741 88960127520120838 70199
54706 65645103166 99652 87574 88465 66932 86089 82822137222 73912 86881 78614
62428 88465104354114502101285 95543114007105592 90395 71932102226 96286119452
80644113759 55102116878104255103909 85049118016102919 93662 88960106334 97226
114155127421116779148261115442121679 77228134054 95098 58171114700 59656108463
85693101632134797 84604107126 95345 88019 82228 94603 89801 91138 97474 79852
110096 77971 90346115987 75545 98018 93910 83020 89405 69011 71090 97177104800
82228 96731125441 61240 88564 97276 92870129401 69407106334 78317108562 54211
107077 91979 94999 65893107918
2) Early summer temperature reconstructed (5-years moving average)
2068=N -75=I TJJ5 -4(13F6.0)~
107463 89524 76466 79149 77654 87613 90217 95088 88524 94632 96988102869105027
107344107166104512 98909 97543 92979 91058 90969 92553 92731 99968 93613 91187
98216 94761 87861 93731 96870 82980 85920 92425 90177 87801 95028 93692 92375
94692 91870 86811 91949 84079 79881 89445 99869 94068 95494 89207 85445 80703
82604 85940 90217 84693 85980 86138 83940 82515 83227 79010 77258 77377 83901
83029 86148 87484 85772 86673 88890 91979 91395 91118 85356 85584 84722 90672
90623 84554 84158 79733 72971 75189 83425 84109 86821 86752 82287 83594 85564
83821 86692 94038 84802 85712 85158 80228 80465 85485 82198 82851 89009 83534
81673 86554 84445 76149 85366 85613 77456 77525 80683 74337 80891 82861 84554
84782 82930 76654 80762 81168 80842 82851 86970 84128 87217 87970 88197 88663
84109 81594 82713 83039 87593 88544 88623 86168 87633 78584 82930 78416 82247
82752 84910 84079 91563 89148 87772 94038 92761 86207 85960 91118 93236 93949
99265 98909 91395 88118 88296 90237 96276 94098 89771 89771 87861 81317 86514
94662 97414 96969 95533 94612 84415 81921 85465 92385 91207 87049 89761 85633
76030 83930 95028 87148 86188 91286 89187 88415 91563 94504 95266 94038 95038
100137 95325 94088 95830 93217 89702101097107611108373112017109215 92444 88098
83643 83317 79347 81931 78703 80881 77238 82990 90128 96068 93543 91464 96187
93870 91999 90058 92811 87653 91365 89920 98929102117102721103354 96335 95464
94989 92900 81990 88851 84574 77842 83346 93088 95127 83920 89435 83812 78862
80307 87009 89534 91048 91890 92543 85603 75436 73575 76466 75753 87583 88722
92623 88118 84782 82584 86346 81673 86435 88187 89049 86356 89841 85544 79782
79960 78822 77080 80317 87227 90207 90682 90207 87920 78584 71912 78020 77040
81257 86079 86376 78693 85009 81742 81495 80347 91167 92276 89950 91058 93959
86564 87257 85396 86900 86494 90425 84198 83633 83663 91138 93919 93019 99226
94058 88554 80713 86277 86326 89573 91692 95998 97365 95593106463110106113422
113927118897101820 90811 90821 88870 87405 97285 97028 93603 88583 87465 87999
96375 91138 94632 97780 97206106027 99483104473107700106849 93910108175 99226
95800 88286 91870 91078108423107215116838112126106255 93890 87405 80257 79357
91850 87544 90870 97622102592 97959 96008 88009 91504 85960 74783 78931 91326
89603 90464 98959101047 98830 92583 93504 94157 94197 96988 99661 98988 98543
95474 89969 89425 84732 79109 85188 80851 84910 94028 98790 97523106700 99770
88286 84663 85910 79208 84643 94603 98572 92504 86089 82891 85059 78317 82871
94543 94672 92029 96305 84178 77891 80396 81436 77525 82158 88979 87811 86712
92821 93553 88979 81604 81218 85108 91811 96949108571112690104760 97483 95008
82584 85643 84752 87861 85871 90732 83980 88771 93355 88781 96117 85970 86999
83237 91039 89791102829102156 99899 94860 88762 82643 86395 91603 89078 90791
102117 99760 96959103453 97969 95484 86930 90801 93702 95672 90870 97969 94543
84386 92088 87376 88366 85495 87841 86890 96612101651106195112195110334101057
85841 84910 83445 87376 92118 91939 94464 90662 94177 86653 95533 88059 96226
88544 94533 88039100246 93929 98751102820109017 98929 98058 93048 88999 90039
90583 94652 90989 94721 91821 93484 91019 98929 95395 93969 92999 95117 99454
90761 90652 91751 92306 82525 85693 86712 84564 83366 85326 90524 89563 88118
86742 83148 83168 84386 86762 92603 96385 99612103711105463100642 97672 91276
89999 89761 83366 85099 92019 90563 87237 91939 87098 79238 78624 76723 75713
78812 83920 82673 88762 85900 85000 83851 84732 84138 83386 87762 85514 84841
81822 89870 85554 90395 90276 91543 91355 90959 91306 96127 97266 90544 96167
95266 88801 90860 86277 84821 80158 88088 90712 92761 97672102037 86386 73931
78000 74743 70417 76961 85495 82267 76862 75644 79168 79743 86306 88168 88385
88296 79852 79723 85059 86554 87712 95147 94424 95454 99899 99176 96385 98226
97919 95365 92781 94731 89167 91276 98523 96672 98355 98473 89583 84366 97691
91613 99216105829106334 99632 97731100869 97642 97553101879106116103918 98216
100671 96672104235 96751104542105403 97483 89326 90296 77010 74832 84049 89187
90098 99216100018 98592 94464 99374102879 94583 95642 95078 86801 84505 91682
92128 94642 98454 92929 94801 84782 89811 88009 92128 85643 97384 83435 82742
82505 84277 77169 88534 91474 91177 90949 86831 82604 85544 86148 87880 91385
92217 85445 88118 84495 88306 88247 89365 87772 89415 85990 88465 93325 85603
90425 87772 88168 88989101651100176101226 93048 88098 84178 77188 82930 91395
91573 83782 93444 91890 86960 89296 97474 93840 91068 90336 81673 79673 83574
86574 80644 83109 84396 81792 80149 89900 95355 86613 75575 81703 83940 81584
90049 97780 93316 85207 88316 89257 90019 90355 89484 94137 90296 94553 98315
93514 92632 91534 84188 74159 88811 82921 83821 89761 88059 85217 89316 91999
86376 88098 88108 82138 76842 77525 83950 81584 84267 88900 89752 87534 85980
88009 87366 88405 94563 93613 91266 94137 90751 91593 94335 88851 85059 90831
87059 84257 97345102988 97622 91246 90821 87950 77466 83693 82911 86593 81851
96206 91771 93187 91623 97830 92029 95761 99077 98889 96622 92533 90058 91761
89821 83010 80950 76099 77565 79287 82871 86494 83445 83782 89445 93603 91543
103889105047107096102958107482109274 96652 92533 95464 92484 84227 96889 93048
93286 91316 87682 84148 82564 81178 79505 79693 79683 80228 79525 87257 90306
95781100632 97097 89356 86376 78347 78436 81693 88257 98563101929 96761 97899
95325 86861 77782 79673 76080 76327 80653 85009 85445 86831 82485 79238 84772
86029 86960 86999 91474 95286 97513 95167102820 97533 86970 87336 89662 86494
90672 91326 85267 86989 78198 72427 77456 81733 77604 85712 87514 86732 89880
88920 89643 93731 97127 98563101067 99869 89167 82901 75743 79347 81327 86108
84178 89979 92415 93583104631107215105314 92484 83663 80337 86752 87682 93405
98285 95998 88534 85990 83821 93622 98127 99850 98226105007102750 92504 88158
89504 77268 69298 70942 76416 73189 83851 87405 89940 85336 88682 89405 91573
89375 90098 91850 84811 86128 87831 93197 92474 99810 96880 94632 91741 97503
98988 99236 97503 99859 88465 78317 71575 73347 76258 78238 87920 89306 85584
84247 82901 79406 80495 80525 78515 77872 77822 81574 84019 81772 85960 81723
82703 88296 96810101414 97810 93474 94949 86356 78664 88910 92672100028108720
102285109146105978 96899 86950 92207 76931 76674 72694 77634 86465 97622105017
112294110680112601118937117660111155115818 96206 90702 94335 99939100374112393
109225 98889 97909 92187 86237 81822 80822 74951 77515 85099 82435 86257 92989
89613 97444101958 94157 90187 93415 83990 88880107651107928104097111838110660
91682 95117 90237 83683 81455 88474 83445 84772 91563 97592 96602101156108760
106483101562102532 91880 85415 83386 77198 80099 90583 90969 84910 86584 83020
78525 86603 94702100087 98384106106 96315 90098 88286 85920 71862 78000 80931
77347 81020 87880 92623 95474102018108819112561112779108215 94919 84514 81465
71199 73773 87752 95107 93791 91395 93860 88722 86178 87029 96256 92286 97622
101760105700101513100176 90138 86999 82772 89791 87049 99691100424106007 90296
92177 86207 88880 88059 96454101552100057 93236 91217 97186 92731 89870 91939
90296 83722 86415 92137 96592 98048101641103879 98533100008 99473 95662 83089
86336 78624 72100 74278 83762 81198 78416 90029 96058 96751104186107007104869
95305 92840 91563 96513 82475 85198 95048 91900 90296100206 98662 89326 90801
92167105196 97078 94414 91910 88366 83742 99661105255106324112492107829 95979
100325 92722 86138 76525 78624 74347 85960 88544 97424 96969100305 88435 90643
88009 97553103027109057103978100483100691 86079 88514 91623 98563 87257 86752
85990 81832 77080 84564 89791 85465 83505 84752 77485 79604 82297 86920 87207
95127 90266 90593 88940 89712 83326 82732 90841 87722 79069 88752 90623 77159
80832 87970 80228 78000 84782 82544 81188 85920 91831 90534 87682 92444 91197
89811 88890 95642 96533101542101552 95860 95523 85574 81238 72070 76198 73407
83416 83416 91375 90286 91722 89227 86653 88900 90138 87178 85287 85673 80485
83307 85851 88069 89722 90712 84445 81673 80950 81119 87623 87712 87385 87613
86336 82416 89692 90920 88069 82604 82525 80366 79832 85178 88613 84792 85603
87524 82554 85544 86465 79564 77990 77070 74070 76129 80683 80386 83821 85346
84396 80673 81614 80594 79436 78089 81396 83128 79535 85524 81634 82723 85396
84217 79416 86772 85346 78594 81832 85168 85495 89613 94454100493 94989 87504
83277 83554 77693 82614 90108 90177 95246102008107690105908112254109769100176
95117 96424 93197 82911 79832 70288 65873 62022 73446 79347 86049 95167101750
102325 93127 89524 79436 79168 77476 81703 84950 89722 87603 87455101038103275
102958 98869 95909 85871 88653 94454 96731 98513103928101750 93494 89742 88732
81634 81643 78852 85999 86692 90850 91534 96325 93494 94553 95286 85445 83069
83307 86791 85574 93761 93850101948106423115383112809111363 90247 77208 69773
68387 77594 92603 96385 96553104067 96979 97870 97186 95325 93286 88573 83534
89336 91138 89959 96721105295 96751 93187 95424 92603 88494 89316 94919 91761
91692 87267 92118 90791 91098 94474 89930 87534 86564 89098 87425 93979 94711
88890 82059 85960 82455 84208 94306 95266 93405103136 94365 91860 91573 88168
75694 76733 78485 82356 86148 94563 93781 85673 86168 83336 82604 87405 90078
89336 83861 85544 85118 84653 83564 91108 82723 87079 87257 90316 89187 95137
94702 88682 92316 91415 87504 79347 84505 74585 77248 82861 85316 89712 98167
95583 86900 90336 92821 88009 91118 96741 90504 86623 89514 87811 88375 94137
93840 89534 82515 81752 89880 90534 92177 97840 96315 83475 81950 79584 82871
81238 83920 80337 83307 79693 83831 88771 90989 85999 83990 79743 76951 77060
84425 90197 94048 87801 86395 85643 83416 77416 84534 87880 90237 89979 98988
100958 97295 84118 82000 79624 72961 76099 86316 83881 86702 91464 94979 93098
99968 96048 93395 84881 81990 84346 83663 83623 91138 94751 88504 91850 96790
96276 93256 95563 88187 85554 84198 86445 88583 94048 92405 91732 85811 87108
81861 79683 84920 89890 84960 85990 93464 83445 88138 88900 91534 79020 87663
79931 79634 79465 91494 85861 90603 89247 96305 94583 91187 88564 89257 79446
76288 84049 85693 87564 90959 92553 92464 90860 87781 91930 88177 85673 89573
90029 79505 79525 78139 77030 73506 81198 86643 87187 89039 93741 89415 86306
91048 84861 84762 87296 87682 85643 91068 95365 90623 93543 97474 97503 85613
89801 81901 78119 77208 82168 81396 88138 84970 82831 89464 88168 89643 91870
92217 84049 89019 89722 83861 86742 90979 87722 82336 86277 86207 92009 96147
100354 97771 95404 88732 88276 81485 82188 81891 82614 77763 79960 82287 80475
77990 82208 82802 79208 83970 86811 84811 88791 92504 91484 90979 93207 89207
92514 84168 81832 75664 72446 70130 76792 76981 81812 89227 94137 96929100998
97632 95909 89445 84524 84366 90850 86386 90920 94523 94246 83911 88415 84435
84237 83198 87692 86712 88465 87960 95028 91098 96820 98652 97870 88900 96177
92375 85118 84128 89049 88138 89464 95098 93355 83792 88999 89752 88870 94256
104948105027103146101156 95533 93741 86544 80406 80634 84019 87890 89692 90098
83792 86673 81475 85554 88831101384102651106393100424105651 96018 90593 84188
79574 76367 86366 88108 96345104314 96612 90722 89722 86554 85861 96345 98127
96840 96028 93306 92771 91058 90306 87970 95701 98830 95899 98681 94533 85415
80020 77426 79852 85683 92365 93098 98345100067 90375 91108 88019 87207 81049
82614 76288 76674 76179 77852 81475 84623 80396 80238 81436 85821 86237 89346
85524 83920 82693 85782 90375 89257 93880 89108 79366 78515 87880 83950 87405
90346 85871 86178 86346 89326 91088 91375 87326 88989 84851 85633 82465 84168
78812 87663 89613 95751 94682100295 94068 94860 92286101236103265102433 99958
102097 96721 88108 83099 90207 81129 77495 81495 87692 77426 82515 86801 86217
91365100770106789107700108403102117 99285 91138 81931 79446 83544 83396 86019
89474 96860 93870 87564 91771 92900 95969101166100651 92444 87781 82911 78673
82148 88900 89158 85742 82376 92306 89395 93385 91890 87811 78060 84148 89672
94207100830105938106186101364 95494 96830 93286 96058 94108102473 93048 97167
94127 98780 93038105621102829100711 97721101978 97820100067106819112383120768
124411125916115878119333108700 97246 95850 92335 87217 85336 94028 98048103037
102770104701101978 91464 93464 89999 89158 91048 90573 93672 91306 91147 94850
93989 91573 94761 93296 87979 86673 81287 81940 86296 84861 90405101275 94088
90841 93850 93078 93870 95503 99058 95266 98404 83366 90900 88029 91365 82831
93573
3) Annual temperature reconstructed, RCS-chronology (5-years moving average)
2068=N -75=I TYY5 -3(13F6.0)~
-12564-12358-12537-12656-13098-12929-13147-13257-13384-13016-12835-12903-12930
-13576-13553-13649-13392-13177-12819-12688-12926-13075-13332-13153-13197-13410
-13017-13152-13072-13194-12905-12848-12725-12723-12681-12927-13628-13809-13580
-13499-13547-13069-13036-12979-12913-12830-12735-12648-12783-12679-12869-13358
-13367-13615-14005-13568-13824-14163-14297-14023-13902-13566-13862-13968-13582
-13782-13605-13476-13375-13224-13576-13357-13123-13099-13014-13030-13354-12940
-13430-13238-13308-13270-13675-13594-13725-13726-13363-13538-13683-13824-13714
-13667-13512-13704-13096-13097-13400-13343-13264-13211-13644-13630-13382-13402
-13211-13007-13084-13185-13179-13128-13308-13570-13688-14509-13992-13869-14206
-13872-13900-13415-13486-13465-13495-13484-13772-13586-13270-13622-14089-14416
-13938-14000-14046-14121-13928-13935-13861-13886-13708-13628-13599-13337-13584
-13540-13487-13910-13628-13637-13691-13598-13807-13756-13706-13380-13027-13069
-13124-13416-13260-13649-13760-13475-13061-13456-13343-13435-13419-13789-13868
-13259-12929-13089-13432-13436-13657-13806-13358-13567-13504-13095-13069-13156
-13475-13179-13461-13262-13199-13027-13255-13113-13764-13904-14151-13754-13034
-13415-13462-13486-13015-13330-13488-13139-13130-12885-12759-12938-12595-12574
-12878-13176-12923-12994-13381-13337-13364-13491-13691-13535-13755-13754-13622
-13730-13870-13928-13997-13994-13800-13806-13148-12882-13265-13062-13043-13063
-12997-12825-12703-12692-13028-13093-13032-13457-13561-13230-13464-13109-13156
-13165-13535-13322-13271-13553-13225-13093-13070-13208-13163-13285-13301-13604
-13527-13440-13611-13486-13674-13724-13762-13707-13747-13266-13691-13481-13392
-13791-13550-13618-13475-13473-13174-13404-13125-13344-13318-13734-13432-13343
-13238-13358-13508-13540-13649-13975-13986-14033-13732-13660-13645-13627-13389
-13931-13917-14016-13817-13816-13658-13615-13495-13508-13190-13057-12882-12900
-12774-12902-13117-13299-13446-13945-13713-13901-13311-13268-13309-13240-13368
-13251-13316-12818-12489-12514-12564-12865-13234-13551-13622-13445-13438-13273
-12893-12915-12989-12763-12838-12489-12515-12471-12298-12401-12689-12887-12669
-12937-12691-12788-12973-12360-12344-12604-12586-12531-13175-12910-12845-13020
-12757-13265-13129-12966-12744-13062-12841-12791-12770-12695-12940-13042-12944
-13165-13127-13508-13451-13463-13268-13625-13392-13212-13143-13734-13594-13740
-13739-13817-13922-13234-13280-13152-13178-13214-13040-13374-13216-13432-13224
-13108-13313-13301-13538-13493-13788-13718-13834-13432-13496-13400-13253-13190
-13449-13348-13444-13942-13332-13256-13224-13349-13269-13339-13352-13360-13496
-13546-13849-13954-13434-13509-13215-13074-13161-13363-13544-13291-13333-13360
-13263-13202-13071-12957-13209-13539-14219-14232-13728-13297-13065-12877-12926
-13045-13088-13310-13728-13717-13768-13691-13633-14032-13692-13258-13262-13176
-13017-13062-13010-13164-13028-13167-12857-12869-12877-12835-12996-13390-13451
-13654-13592-13430-13483-13420-13079-13403-12816-12539-12529-12741-13298-13139
-13049-13073-13107-13344-13239-13362-13165-13082-12810-12905-12821-12964-12672
-12853-13144-12972-12759-12810-12603-12645-12744-12922-12984-13148-13841-13976
-13748-13811-13353-13158-13048-13204-13236-13723-13749-13821-13819-13723-13074
-12875-12803-12758-12812-13402-13124-13135-13364-13711-13665-14034-14245-14090
-14094-14180-14275-14276-14249-13559-13446-13450-13672-13779-13669-13873-13484
-13413-13497-13269-13239-13204-13541-13491-13863-13408-13379-13548-13361-13709
-13713-13724-14111-13845-13764-13801-13673-13758-13930-13678-13531-13556-13618
-13938-14029-14036-13465-13478-13888-13763-13868-13754-13398-13289-13074-13283
-13232-13228-13242-13234-13361-13465-13081-13047-13169-12992-13166-12882-12930
-12920-13072-13365-13509-13298-13184-13400-13544-13483-13527-13668-13750-13959
-14193-13531-13525-13404-13443-13327-13647-13941-13379-13426-13479-13677-13733
-13468-13311-13189-13134-12807-12864-12672-12667-12753-12779-13025-13501-12977
-13079-12765-12884-13131-13315-13071-12821-12956-12985-12976-13235-13210-12847
-12870-13026-12852-12977-13201-13202-12735-12762-12712-12935-13424-13433-13411
-13217-13589-13152-13135-13229-13312-13413-13298-13367-13223-13219-13504-13363
-13317-13396-13834-13263-13086-12959-12848-12883-12972-13191-13155-13194-13223
-13177-13136-13363-13541-13589-13524-13585-13612-13495-13214-13374-13335-13661
-13783-13655-13664-13654-13601-13570-13651-13765-13854-13840-13962-13674-13402
-13041-13164-12997-13168-13263-13288-13558-13191-13012-13300-13576-13511-13449
-13271-13075-13033-13033-12992-12926-13009-13187-13207-13351-13095-13232-13102
-12935-12959-12982-13007-13191-13212-13424-14012-13405-13300-13180-13173-13150
-13300-13673-13520-13190-13514-13606-13664-13742-13456-13361-13496-13160-13010
-13093-12902-12961-13167-13340-13054-13319-13364-13172-13200-13438-13047-13338
-13355-13311-13267-13234-13187-13343-13267-13402-13428-14014-14008-14331-14235
-14026-14044-13860-13519-13515-13405-13169-13039-12856-13080-12858-13081-13136
-13507-13546-13362-12914-13087-12939-12857-13090-13351-13269-13175-13060-13278
-13013-13220-13424-13375-13105-13304-13097-13204-13486-13520-13642-13848-13850
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-13368

Draft manuscript
VARIABILITY OF LARCH RADIAL GROWTH IN THE EAST OF TAYMIR AND
PUTORAN FOR THE LAST 2000 YEARS

M.M.Naurzbaev, E.A.Vaganov
Taymir Biospheric Reserve, Khatanga
Institute of Forest, Krasnoyarsk

Abstract
Regional tree-ring chronology with extension 2209 years (since
212 B.C. till 1996 A.D.) was built for the east of Taymir
according to wood of living trees, well preserved residues of dead
trees and semi-fossil wood from alluvial bank deposits by the
cross-dating method. In addition the "floading" tree-ring width
chronology for the period of Holocene Optimum (3300-2600 B.C.)
was built with extention 685 years and supported by several
rdiocarbon dates. High values of synchrony and correlation
of individual tree-ring series show a prevailing effect of one
external factor on radial tree growth change in the studied region
of Siberian subarctic. It was established that the main factor of
growth variability the early summer and annual temperature
is which explains up to 70% of tree growth rate variability.
Cyclic components stable for two millennia were revealed at analysis
of the tree-ring chronology: double secular (about 180 years),
secular (78-90) and intrasecular (44, 28, 11 and 6,7-6,9 years)
variations. Models for reconstruction of the early summer and
annual air temperature were obtained according to tree growth
variability. Temperature dynamics in the eastern part of Taymir
for the last two millenia agrees well with temperature variations
in the northern hemisphere obtained according to other indirect
sources. The warming of the middle of the 20-th century is not
extraordinary. The more long in time, and close in amplitude the
warming at the border of the first and the second millennia was.

Key words: radial growth, tree-ring chronologies, temperature
change, dendrochronology, climate, growth cyclicity, temperature
reconstruction, response functions.

Introduction

The leading dendrochronological groups began their work
in some key regions of circumpolar zone of the northern hemisphere
on building the superlong (several millennia, and for the whole
Holocene period if to use subfossil wood) tree-ring chronologies
for the quantitative reconstruction of natural temperature
variations [6,8,19,20,35,36]. The high latitudinal regions in the
northern hemisphere are of greatest interest for assessing natural
and anthropogenic variations of air temperature, forest-tundra
ecosystem growth and productivity, regeneration regime as well as
of polar timberline dynamics because the ecosystems of high
latitudes have the highest sensibility to the expected global
climate warming [4,15,18,19,22,43]. Owing to accessibility and
great amount of well-preserved wood of dead trees as well as of
subfossil wood from alluvial river deposits and wood buried in
bogs several regions in high latitudes of Russia turned to be
promising for building millennial chronologies: the Polar Urals
[15,31], Yamal peninsula [32], the east of Taymir and Putoran
[7,8,14] and the lower Indigirka river[34]. The following problems
were solved in the given paper: 1) obtaining of the absolutely
dated 2000 year tree-ring chronology suitable for quantitative
reconstruction of climate changes; 2) revealing of the main
climatic factor responsible for the year-to-year and long -term
growth variability; 3) building of models of climate change
reconstruction for the whole period of long tree-ring chronology.

Material and methods
Dendrochronological material was collected in Kheta-Khatanga
plain as well as in Moyero-Kotuy plateau regions of the
Middle-Siberian forest zone within the northern stripe of the
northern taiga subzone [1] (Fig.1). The wood samples were taken
with the help of a borer or chainsaw from the living trees, from the well
preserved residues of a dead and subfossil wood. The whole
sampled material is from trees from three types of conditions:
1) from the contemporary northern timberline of larch in the stow
(urotchishche) Ary-Mas of the Taymir biospheric reservation
(latitude of 72 28' N.); 2) from contemporary upper timberline
with absolute marks 200-300 m above sea level in the Kotuy river
valley (latitude of 70 30'-71 00' N.); 3) from alluvial deposits
of flood-land and over-flood-land terraces of large tributaries of
the Khatanga river (latitude of 70 30'- 73 00'N.). Measuring of
the tree-ring width was made with the help of automatized devices
with resolution up to 0.001 mm, and later the measured individual
tree-ring chronologies were treated in the standard software
package for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological analysis
[26,33]. Owing to the high year-to-year variability, high
synchrony of individual series between each other the results of
the cross dating gave a chance to build the continuous chronology
since the year 212 B.C. till 1996 A.D., it means the total length
2209 years. Besides, according to the well-cross-dated discs of
subfossil wood for which the series of radiocarbon dates was
made at the University of Bern (Switzerland) and at the Joint
Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy SB RAS
(Novosibirsk) the "floading" chronology of 685 years long was
obtained which according to the dates agreed with climatic optimum
of the Holocene (3300-2600 years B.C.).
Standartization method is used to treat individual series for
the best revealing of climatic signal. This method is intended to
remove the changes caused by age or by factors of the non-climatic
nature (for example, effect of phytocoenotic factors) from
tree-ring width variability. For standartization two approaches
were used: 1) an approximating curve of age variations is tried
for every individual series [15,26]; 2) an age curve is used which
is built according to the entire totality of analysed individual
curves of growth [3,11,21,23]. As the special studies showed, the
long climatic changes (or super-secular variations) remain more
reliably at the second standartization method [21]. Therefore, it
was chosen for standartization of individual series and obtaining
of the long chronology of tree-ring indexes. Obtaining of
regional tree-ring chronology (C1) and of the so-called "residual"
series (C2), from which autocorrelation was removed [26,40], was
as a result of individual series standartization. The main
statistic characteristics were calculated for the obtained
chronologies: inter-series coefficient of correlation (as an
index of synchrony of individual series), sensitivity coefficient,
standard deviation,1-st order autocorrelation etc.[30,41].
Analysis of the frequency-temporal structure of obtained
chronologies at the entire period and at the 500-year intervals
was carried out by Fourie method of direct transforming
(Blackman-Tyuki method) and Fourie method of "fast or inverse
transforming" (Kuli-Tyuki method) [10]. The methods of graphical
assessment of smoothed curves [15,16], analysis of
autocorrelational function [2,15], a narrow-striped filtering of
series [12] were used at the revealing of long (super-secular)
cycles in growth variability. Revealing of the main climatic
factors of growth variability was based on response function
assessing and interpreting [30,42]. The quantitative
reconstruction of climatic factors according to variability of
growth indexes was made on the base of calculated regression model
at which building one part of climatic series was used for
calibration, another part - for verification [6,7,41]. Adequacy of
reconstruction model was assessed by standard statistic indexes:
correlation coefficient, Fisher's criterion, autocorrelation of
residues - criterion of Darbin-Watson [17].

Results
In the result of the cross dating (its quality was checked by
statistic estimates according to the COFECHA program [26,33]) of
Larix gmelini living trees and trees dead long ago from the upper
timberline as well as of subfossil wood from alluvial deposits
the reginal tree-ring chronology since the year 212 B.C. till 1996
A.D. was built for the eastern part of Taymir and Putoran. The
total number of wood samples being dated was 118, including 27 living
and 91 dead trees. The average age of the used trees made 300
years, the maximum age was 798 years. The percentage of the
missing rings is not very large - only 0,5% because the discs were
analysed, mainly, but not wood cores [44]. The tree number in the
regional chronology is not homogeneous in calendar scale and has a
tendency to decrease when moving to the past: 3 and more models
since the year 135 B.C., 5 and more models since the year 81
B.C. Dating of dead trees showed that in the upper timberline under
continental climate the dead tree residues can remain on the day
surface during more than 1900 years. Inter-series correlation
coefficient for the whole time period is rather higher than the
threshold value (0,62- 0,75, p < 0,01). It confirms
a stable and strong external influence which
synchronizes growth variability of individual trees.
The main statistic C1 chronology for the whole period and in
500- year intervals are given in the Table 1. The high and close
coefficient values of sensitivity and standard deviation for the
different time intervals show that tree growth variability under
these conditions is controlled by one and the same factor during
two millennia. Autocorrelation of the first order which shows the
growth effect of the previous year on the growth in the next year
is of great importance as well. Autocorrelation is not significant
after treating it by autoregression model in C2. The average
tree-ring width for two thousand years is at the level 0,28 mm
but it greatly varies in time, the average tree-ring width is more
high (0,40 mm) for the Holocene optimum period (Fig.3).
Radiocarbon datings agree well with absolute dendrochronological
data.
Analysis of spectral density allowed to show the frequency
stripes important by their contribution to the total growth
variability and to assess their amplitude (Table 2). The
contribution of millennial cyclic component makes about 4%. The
large contribution is brought by double secular cycle (in
frequency stripe of 120-220 years) up to 20,6% and secular cycle
(in frequency stripe of 60-120 years) - up to 13,3%. The
cross-spectral analysis of the 500 year old fragments of
chronology showed that during two millennia the double secular
(180 years), secular (78-90 years) and several intrasecular
(44,28,11 6,7- 6,9 years) cycles are steadily present. Hereat,
re-distribution in the capacity of separate cyclic components is
observed. Such a re-distribution was already noted in the papers
on dendroclimatic data from boreal taiga forests and forest-tundra
regions [2,12,15]. Positive anomalies of growth, the most strong in
amplitude and long in time, fall on the 4-th century, the border of
the 6-th and 7-th centuries, the border of the 1-st and 2-nd
millennia, the middle of the 20-th century. However, the negative
anomalies fall on the 1-st century, the border of the 13-th and
14-th centuries and the first half of the 19-th century. These
anomalies can be explained by superposition of cycles of different
length. So, growth increase in the middle of the 20-th century
agreed with positive periods of the double secular, secular, and
several intrasecular cycles (44, 11, and 6,7 years).
Since at the polar timberline the summer temperature is the
main factor of growth limiting [6, 15,35,43], then the
dendroclimatic analysis of relation of growth variability was
carried out, first of all, with air temperature data for summer
period. However, some changes were brought to the traditional
searching scheme of correlation with average monthly temperature
data.In order to reveal the key interval of the season when
temperature mainly affected on radial tree growth the
value of correlation coefficient between
C2 growth indexes and air temperature for every five days
beginning from the 8-th of May was calculated. Everyday data of
the Khatanga meteorological station since 1933 to 1989 were used.
All the calculations are given in the Fig.4. As we see, the significant
positive connection (p<0,01) between air temperature for every
five days and growth indexes is observed for the period since June
17 to July 11 and it falls on the interval of stable temperature
rise in the season. The temperature of the more late intervals of
the season does not show large connection with growth variations.
The temperature for the period June 17 -July 11 we called as an
early summer temperature. Temperature sum for this time period
shows the most correlation with C2 tree-ring indices (R=0,77). Thus,
variability of C2 tree-ring indexes is determined by the early
summer temperature variability in the east of Taymir and Putoran
by 60%. The smoothed
(the 5-year moving average) C1 tree-ring indexes and instrumental
values of average annual air temperature show high agreement too
(R=0,72). At the same time the smoothed annual temperature shows the
significant relationship with the concordance coefficient calculated
for the same period of 5 years based on all wood samples available.
This relationship is positive (R=0.44,p<0.01) and shows that in
cool periods the synchrony in tree-ring variations among all trees
measured becames lower, in warm periods it becomes higher, but has
a non-significant relation to tree-ring width variations.
Therefore, at seaching of quantitative models of
reconstruction of leading climatic variables using tree-ring
chronologies it was conventionally taken to use C2 for the early
summer temperature reconstruction, and C1 - for the
annual temperature reconstruction.
The results of calibration and verification of obtained
models of the early summer and average annual temperature
reconstruction according to 2000-year chronologies data are given
in the Table 3 and in the Fig.5. As we can see, the early summer
temperature variability is well explained by tree-ring indexes
variability in C2 (R^2 =0,59 - 0,72), the average annual
temperature variability is described by the model with two
variables: by smoothed values of tree-ring indexes in C1 and by
concordance coefficient values between individual series (R^2 =0,67)
(Fig.5). Comparison of calculated values of the early summer and
average annual temperatures with the real ones for the period of
instrumental observations shows (Fig.5) that the calculated values of
the early summer temperature agree well with the year-to-year
variability of real values repeating the most large positive
(1940-41, 1953, 1967,1979, 1984) and negative (1947, 1949, 1980,
1989) extremes. Hereat, in the curves of the early summer
temperature variability the long fluctuations are not expressed.
To the contrary, the periods of large temperature rise
(1938-1956,1983-1989) and temperature fall (the end of (19)50s and
(19)70s clearly agree in reconstructed and real values of average
annual temperature.
Based on the obtained models according to two chronologies the
reconstruction of the early summer and average annual air temperature
was made for the east of Taymir and Putoran for the period since the
year 81 B.C. to the present time (it means, for the period provided
by 5 and more samples). The curves of variability of the
reconstructed early summer temperature (smoothed by the 5-year and
57-year moving average) are given in the Fig.6. The average value
of the early summer temperature equals to 9,6 C for the
instrumental observation period. The most large fall of the early
summer temperature is marked in the 1-st century (T=8,4 C), and in
the end of the 13-th century (8,4 C). The most warm periods with
the raised average early summer temperature are the end of the
3-rd century (T=9,7 C), the border of two millennia (9,6 C), the
middle of the 20-th century (9,9 C). The middle of the 20-th
century is characterized by the most rise of the early summer
temperature, but the 11-th and 12-th centuries are characterized
by the long period with high early summer temperatures.
Long variations of the average annual temperature range from
minus 14 C to minus 12,5 C. It was of great interest for average
annual temperature to compare the reconstruction data with other
indirect data on dynamics of average annual air temperature of the
northern hemisphere in order to make clear whether temperature
variations in the east of Taymir and Putoran reflect global
temperature changes in the northern hemisphere. As such the data
on reconstruction of temperature variation in high latitudes
according to ratio of oxygen isotopes in ice cores of Greenland
were used [25,29]. In the Fig.7 both reconstructions are matched
in the calendar scale since the late of the 12-th century. Their
good agreement is well seen, especially in positive (the 14-th and
15-th centuries, the end of the 18-th and the middle of the 20-th
centuries) and in negative (the late of the 13-th and of the 17-th
centuries, and the first half of the 19-th) extremes. It means,
the long fluctuations of average annual temperature in the east of
Taymir and Putoran agree well with global air temperature
variations of the northern hemisphere for the last millennium, and
hence the tree-ring chrnology of this region can be used to
analyse both regional peculiarities and global temperature
variations in the northern hemisphere.

Discussion and conclusions
The results of analysis of the super-long tree-ring chronology
of the Taymir and Putoran east show that the information on the
main climate changes in the northern hemisphere for the last 2000
years is reliably fixed in it: fall of temperature in the first
century, climate warming in the 3-rd and 4-th centuries, warming
in the Medival Warm Period (?) or "the small climatic optimum" at the border
of two millennia, the long fall of temperature in the 17-th and
19-th centuries ("the small glacial period") and the present
climate warming in the middle of the 20-th century [27]. Since the
obtained regional chronology has good correlations with
other chronologies of subarctic zone within 500- 600 km [6,43],
then we can believe that similar regularities of the early summer
and average annual temperature variability are typical of large
sector of Siberian subarctic. It was shown earlier that the long
growth variations agree well for the entire Siberian subarctic
[8,24]. The studied region (and this is shown by subfossil wood
samples and by obtained "floating" chronology) has a high potential
to build the tree-ring chronology for the whole Holocene period
and to study in details temperature variations for this period of
the Earth history.
Two important consequenses from reconstruction analysis should
be noted especially. First, the analysis of frequency structure of
series and of their separate fragments illustrates a constancy of
the main environmental factors limiting growth. It is confirmed
also by comparing reconstructions with other indirect
evidences. Second, the warming in the middle of the 20-th century,
marked as extraordinary [22], has the analogs in the past. So,
the warming at the border of millennia shows a close amplitude and
was more long [27,38]. Historical evidences on climate of this
Medival Warm period say about the more large climate warming than
the present one [13]. The obtained data demonstrate that
temperature variations in high latitudes for the instrumental
period (1850- 1990) do not go far beyond limits of natural
variations revealed during two millennia.
Ratio of natural and anthropogenic components in the present
and future climate changes is especially discussed. It is proved
in some papers based on the long tree-ring chronologies of North
America that the influence of anthropogenic component becomes
large and can be separated and assessed quantitatively [39]. Hereat,
the trees growing above the upper or polar timberline reflect
stable temperature rise in the northern hemisphere [28,35,37].
However, a direct correlation between temperature and growth is
marked only for trees from growth regime especially chosen [36,37].
The stable trend of summer and especially winter temperatures for
the last decades is connected with the increase of anthropogenic
component share, mainly, at the expense of atmospheric green-house
gases [4]. At the same time, on large areas of high latitudes
(mainly, in subarctic zone) tree growth, correlating well with
temperature rise till (19)60s, begins to stunt after this period
from the rise of temperature [24]. We can believe that the direct
temperature effect is combined with other factors which influence
growth rate of trees in polar latitudes. For instance, increase of winter
precipitation can shift the dates of snow cover melting to the
more late time even at summer temperature rise [9]. In polar
latitudes the conditions of the first season half play the leading
role in radial tree growth and tree-ring forming [5,6]. Therefore,
tree growth response at the polar timberline will be more complex
than we can expect only from summer temperature variations.

Conclusions
1. The long 2209-year (since the year 212 B.C. till 1996 A.D)
regional tree-ring chronology was obtained for the east of Taymir
and Putoran, suitable for quantitative dendroclimatic analysis and
climate change reconstruction. Numerous radiocarbon data of sub-
fossil wood and several built "floating" chronologies show a high
potential of dendrochronological material of the given region for
the building of absolute tree-ring chronology for the main
Holocene period (more than 6000 years).
2. The main factors were established which determined the
year-to-year variability as well as long-term variability of
larch growth in the study region. They are the early summer and
average annual air temperature and they determine up to 70% of the
total growth variability.
3. In long-term growth variability during two millennia the
millennial, the double secular and secular cycles as well as some
intrasecular cycles which are met the most often in tree growth
variability in polar latitudes of the northern hemisphere are
steadily seen. The most large warmings and falls of temperature
can be explained by matching particular cycles.
4. Reconstruction of the early summer and average annual
temperature variations in the east of Taymir and Putoran showed
good agreement of temperature variations in the given region with
temperature variations in the northern hemisphere obtained in
other indirect sources. The warming in the middle of the 20-th
century is not extraordinary. The warming at the border of the
1-st and 2-nd millennia was more long in time and similar in
amplitude.


The work was done under financial support of the Russian Foundation
of Fundamental Research (grant 96-04-48258) and European Community
Foundation (grant ADVANCE -10K).

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Tabl.1.The main statistical characteristics of C1 chronology
_________________________________________________________________________
Period Years Statistical parameters
Mean index Sensit. St.dev. 1-st autocorr. Coef.var.
___________________________________________________________________________
212 BC-
1996 AD 2209 1.016 0.421 0.443 0.41 43.6
212BC-287AD 500 1.014 0.411 0.482 0.53 47.5
0-499AD 500 0.963 0.426 0.421 0.38 43.7
500-999AD 500 0.982 0.457 0.441 0.38 44.9
1000-1499AD 500 1.015 0.427 0.433 0.37 43.6
1497-1996AD 500 1.039 0.339 0.441 0.44 42.4
___________________________________________________________________________

Tabl.2. The relative power of different cyclic components in C1 chronology
(in % to common variation)
___________________________________________________________________________
Period Spectral window
<600 years 220-600 years 120-220 years 60-120 years
___________________________________________________________________________
81 BC-1996 AD 4.0 6.1 11.3 6.7
0-499 AD 2.8 20.6 2.6
500-999 AD 3.7 6.9 11.0
1000-1499 AD 12.0 2.3 4.9
1497-1996 AD 5.9 8.8 13.3
___________________________________________________________________________

Tabl.3. Statistical evaluations of model for reconstruction early summer
temperature based on C2 chronology and annual temperature based on
C1 chronology
____________________________________________________________________________
Calibration Verification
Period R^2 F value D-W statistics Period R^2 F value D-W statistics
____________________________________________________________________________
early summer temperature
1933-
1989 0.59 79.6 1.914
(p<0.00001)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1960- 1933-
1989 0.72 72.7 1.907 1959 0.45 20.5 1.877
(p<0.00001) (p<0.001)
_____________________________________________________________________________
annual temperature (average)
1933-
1993 0.67 46.0 2.51
(p<0.000001)
_____________________________________________________________________________

FIGURES

Fig.1.The map of territory where wood samples were collected: 1- sites of
living old trees; 2- sites where wood remains of dead trees and
subfossil wood were collected; 3-recent polar timberline.
Fig.2.The variability of average tree-ring width (smoothed) in absolutely
dated (upper) and "floating"(below) Taymir chronology. The according
radiocarbon dates shown at right column.
Fig.3.Correlation of C2 index chronology with pentad temperatures (asterisk
shows the significant value of correlation coefficient). The many years
average temperature curve also shown as wide line.
Fig.4.Comparison between observed and calculated early summer (1) and annual
(2) temperature for Taymir. Empty columns indicate the residuals.
Fig.5.Reconstructed early summer temperature from C2 chronology: 1- 5-year
smoothing, 2- 57-year smoothing.
Fig.6.Comparison of long-term changes in annual temperature reconstructed
from Taymir C1 chronology (2) with oxygen isotopic ratio in Greenland
ice cores (2)(according to Burroughs,1992).


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