Monday, March 5, 2012


date: Tue, 3 Jul 2001 13:39:24 +0100 (GMT Daylight Time)
from: Julie Burgess <>
subject: KERN InfoBrief July 2001: Towards the World Summit on Sustainable

MELISSA - Managing the Environment Locally in Sub Saharan Africa

KERN InfoBrief July 2001:
Towards the World Summit on Sustainable Development:

The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development
Expected Outcome of Johannesburg 2002
Background to the World Summit on Sustainable Development
The Preparatory Process for Johannesburg 2002
Pertinent Websites
Electronic newsletters and updates
Status of Africa's Preparatory Process for the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development
Recent Global Conference Feedback
Showcasing African Initiatives
� African Preparatory Meetings 2001
� Hosting the WSSD in Johannesburg South Africa
� South African NGO component for the World Summit on Sustainable Development
� An intergovernmental organization for developing countries - the South Centre
� Burkina Faso's Planning Frameworks and Lessons Learnt
� Ghana's Lessons from the National Strategy for Sustainable Development
� Tanzania's 23 Strategies for sustainable development
� Survey of Local Authorities by ICLEI
� Inviting WSSD Contribution from the MELISSA Network

The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development

The World Summit on Sustainable Development (also known as Rio + 10) takes place from 2 -
11 September 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants will be governments,
concerned citizens, United Nations agencies, multilateral financial institutions and other
major actors to assess global change since the historic United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED), of 1992. In Johannesburg, the world will aim to arrive
at a comprehensive, frank and useful review of the past ten years.

Expected outcome of Johannesburg 2002

The upcoming World Summit on Sustainable Development will aim to answer the following
questions, among others: What has been accomplished since 1992? What have the participating
countries done so far to implement Agenda 21? Have they adopted the National Sustainable
Development Strategies as they agreed they would by 2002? Have they ratified the
conventions that aim to prevent loss of biodiversity or ensure women's rights as they
agreed to do in 1992? What obstacles have they encountered? What lessons have they learned
about what works and what does not? What new factors have emerged to change the picture?
What mid-course corrections need to be made to reach the goals? Where should further
efforts be concentrated?

The summit gathering will not open Agenda 21 for revision, but will rather seek consensus
on the current conditions, and on priorities for further action. A focused agenda will
discuss the findings in particular environmental sectors (forests, oceans, climate, energy,
fresh water, and so on) as well as in cross-sector areas such as economic conditions, new
technologies and globalization. The gathering will also consider the impact of technology,
biology and communications. New financial instruments, the functioning of international
financial institutions and markets will also be evaluated for their implications for the

All types of citizens' groups from business and industry to scientists, from indigenous
people to young people, from community leaders to trade unions are urged to take part in
the evaluation process that are now being launched in every nation. (Source:
Background to the World Summit on Sustainable Development

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the
"Earth Summit," was held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3 - 14 June 1992. This global
conference brought together policy makers, diplomats, scientists, media personnel and NGO
representatives from 179 countries to discuss the impact of human socio - economic
activities on the environment and vice versa. A simultaneous "Global NGO Forum," also held
in Rio de Janeiro, augmented the main summit.

Over the decades, international discussion and actions have focused on important global
environmental problems, for example, pollution, climate change, the depletion of the ozone
layer, the usage and management of ocean and fresh water resources, deforestation,
desertification and land degradation, hazardous waste, and biological diversity.

At the Earth Summit, it was recognized that environmental protection and natural resources
management must be integrated with socio-economic issues of poverty and underdevelopment.
This idea has been captured in the phrase, "sustainable development," as defined by the
World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, as "development that meets the needs
of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own

UNCED 1992 Outcomes
� A major achievement of UNCED was Agenda 21-a broad-ranging program of actions to reach
global sustainable development in the 21st century.
� The Rio Declaration: A set of 27 universally applicable principles to help guide
international action on the basis of environmental, social and economic responsibility.
� The Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC): A legally - binding agreement, signed
by 154 governments at the Summit, its ultimate objective is the "stabilization of
greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous
anthropogenic (man-made) interference with the climate system."
� The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): A legally - binding agreement signed so far
by 168 countries, it focuses on the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable
use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use
of genetic resources.
� Statement of Forest Principles: a set of 15 non - legally binding Principles governing
national and international policy -for the protection, management and utilization of global
forest resources.

The Commission on Sustainable Development:
An institutional outcome of UNCED was the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) in
December 1992, to ensure effective follow-up of UNCED; and to monitor and report on
implementation of the Earth Summit agreements at the local, national, regional and
international levels. The CSD is a functional commission of the UN Economic and Social
Council (ECOSOC), with 53 members. During the five-year review, the Special Session of the
General Assembly (UNGASS) held in June 1997 adopted a comprehensive document entitled
Program for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 prepared by the Commission on
Sustainable Development. (Source: [2]

The Preparatory Process for Johannesburg 2002

International Preparatory process
International level preparations will include: (i) a series of CSD10 meetings in its
function as the Summit Preparatory Committee, and (ii) a number of Thematic Global
Roundtables that will be organized and coordinated by the CSD Secretariat in collaboration
with various partners.

Regional preparatory process
The regional preparatory process will undertake the following main tasks:
1. Conduct a regional assessment of progress, taking into account national reports and
country profiles. This would include:
? Main achievements in the region since UNCED in the implementation of Agenda 21 and other
outcomes of UNCED, including any major regional, sub-regional and national initiatives .
� Progressive outlooks and main constraints faced by the region, and by the countries of
the region.
� Common constraints faced by countries in the region;
� Specific constraints faced by the region (or by the sub - regions);
� Constraints resulting from global developments and changing conditions.
� New initiatives and commitments within regions and its sub - regions towards overcoming
constraints and fostering further progress.
2. Provide an opportunity for interaction with major groups and other stakeholders.
3. Share experiences and provide an opportunity to better prepare and understand the
concerns and positions of the countries involved.
4. Prepare regional "platforms" which would outline key policy issues, priorities and
follow-up actions based on regional assessments. Such platforms could form the basis of a
contribution to the global intergovernmental preparatory process. The main areas of focus
would include:
� Key sustainable development issues, which, in view of the region, require priority
attention and action at the global level.
� Issues which, in view of the region, could be more effectively addressed at the regional
/ sub-regional levels.
� Specific proposals from the region regarding strengthening or raising the effectiveness
of international cooperation, including proposals regarding regional and international

National Preparatory Committees
The Secretariat has invited all countries to establish National Preparatory Committees as
an important mechanism to facilitate national preparations for 2002 and enhance existing
efforts to coordinate sustainable development activities. It is suggested that National
Preparatory Committees will involve representatives of government, local authorities,
professional associations, major groups, media and other partners including local offices
of relevant UN Organizations. National Preparatory Committees are expected to engage in two
primary functions: (i) undertake national reviews/ assessments, and (ii) raise awareness
and mobilize stakeholders at the national and local levels. Countries are invited to
participate in the following four initiatives at country level: 101 ways to promote
sustainable development, sustainable development visions for the 21st century, Children's
Agenda 21 posters and national progressions. The national assessment reports should be
completed and published by October 2001.

National Strategies for Sustainable Development

The call for National Strategies for Sustainable Development (NSSDs) came out of
discussions at the first Earth Summit (Rio de Janeiro, 1992). There is no internationally
agreed definition, nor official guidance on how to prepare an NSSD. However the NSSDs
should define the process by which countries will commit to meeting Sustainable Development
targets or "Agenda 21" at a national level. The NSSDs should not require a completely new
planning process but rather a reorientation of existing activities.
Agreed Time frame:
� 2002 NSSDs introduced in countries and reviewed at UN CSD 10 (agreed at UNGASS "Rio +5"
� 2005 NSSDs to be in a process of implementation (OECD DAC 1996)
� 2015 Strategies to have reversed loss of environmental resources (OECD DAC 1996)

Taking the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) concept of NSSD as a basis, the
following might be seen as key (but not the only) elements of an NSSD: Analysis, debate,
planning, action and capacity building.

Pertinent Websites

Earth Charter Bulletins: [3]

Earth Council: [4]

Earth Summit 2002: [5] Contact: Toby Middleton Email:

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives: [7]

International Institute for Environment and Development: [8] The IIED
provides a series of WSSD briefing papers as well as a series entitled "The Future is Now."

National Strategy on Sustainable Development: [9]

Official United Nation's website for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD):

Rural Development Services Network: [11]

South African Government website for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD):

South African Non Governmental Organization Coalition: [13]

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development:

United Nations Environment and Development (UNED) Forum: [15]

Relevant United Nations documents, listed below as they pertain to the WSSD, may be found
at the following website: [16]

� Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste
� Commission on Human Settlements [18]
� Commission on Population Development [19]
� Commission on Social Development [20]
� Commission on the Status of Women [21]
� Commission on Sustainable Development [22]
� Convention on Biological Diversity [23]
� Convention to Combat Desertification [24]
� Intergovernmental Panel on Forests [25]
/Intergovernmental Forum on Forests [26] /UN
Forum on Forests [27]
� Persistent Organic Pollutants [28]
� Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent [29]
� Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
[30] /Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the
Ozone Layer [31]
� UN Convention on the Law of the Seas [32]
� UN Framework Convention on Climate Change [33]


Arab Network for Environment & Development, Emad Adly, 14 Abul Mahasen Street Cairo Egypt
Tel: 202 304 1634 Fax: 202 304 163 5 Email: [34]

Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism South Africa Branch: Environmental
Deputy Director General Dr Nombasa Tsengwa Private Bag X447 Pretoria 001 South Africa Tel:
+27 12 310 3666 Fax: +27 12 322 2682 E-mail: [35]

Environment Development Action, Magdi Ibrahim, 196 Quartier OLM Maghreb Morocco Tel: 212
775 641 4/641 5 Fax: +212 775 641 Email: [36] Web:

Environment Liaison Centre International ELCI Office for Africa, Barbara Gemmill PO Box
72461 Nairobi Kenya Tel: 254 2 562 022 Fax: 254 2 562 175 Email:
[38] Web: [39]

International Institute for Environment and Development: 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H
0DD, [40] Tel (+44) 20 7388-2117 Fax (+44) 020 7388-2826.

Rural Development Services Network: c/o PO Box 11383 Johannesburg 2000 Tel: +27 11 403 7324
Fax: +27 11 403 7109 Email: [41]

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) P O Box 3001 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tel: +251 1 515 761 Fax: 251 1 514 416 Mr Ousmane Laye, Email: [42]

UNED Forum c/o UNA-UK 3 Whitehall Court London SW1 A 2 EL United Kingdom Tel: +44 20 7839
717 Fax: +44 20 7930 5893 Email [43]

United Nations Environment Programme UNEP Regional Office for Africa PO Box 30552 Nairobi
Kenya Tel: 254 2 623 293 Fax: 254 2 623 927 Web: [44] Mr Sekou Toure Email:
[45] and Hamed Haidara Email: [46]

UN Johannesburg Summit Secretariat / Commission on Sustainable Development: 2 United
Nations Plaza, Room DC2-2220, New York, New York 10017 USA Tel: +1 212 963 8811 Fax: +1 212
963 1267 Email: [47]dsdatXYZxyzorg

Women's Environment and Development Organisation (WEDO) 355 Lexington Avenue, 3rd Floor,
New York, NY 10017-6603 USA TEL: +212-973-0325 Fax: +212-973-0335 E-mail: [48]
Website: [49]

Electronic newsletters and updates

Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
The subscription list will receive the CSD related information quickly and efficiently and
will also help the Commission in developing electronic discussion groups, planned as part
of the preparations for Rio+10, the ten-year review of Agenda 21 implementation. To join
the subscription list, please use the following website address:
[50] If you have technical difficulty
signing up, please email [51]borgognaatXYZxyzorg.

Earth Summit 2002
If you would like to receive the monthly newsletter - Network 2002 - via email, which
follows the run up to the Summit, you can either sign up to it online
([52] or send a blank email with the subject heading:

Status of Africa's Preparatory Process
for the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (Source: UNEP ROA)

January 2000: High Level stakeholders' Meeting (Headquarters of the UN Economic Commission
for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 January 2000)
At this meeting, the African Forum for the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable was formed. The
Forum is open-ended, with thirty members drawn from representatives of regional economic
integration organizations, civil society, non-governmental organizations and other major
groups for each of the five African sub-regions. In addition, a supporting Expanded Joint
Secretariat was established to guide, spearhead and support the overall preparatory process
in the region. It is expected that Africa's development partners, particularly the United
Nations, partners from developed countries and their intergovernmental mechanisms and the
OAU, will assist Africa, both technically and financially, in this important preparation
for the 2002 Summit.

June 2000: First Meeting of the Expanded Joint Secretariat of the African Forum for the
2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (Headquarters of the African Development Bank,
Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, 19-21 June 2000)
The members of the Joint Expanded Secretariat that participated in this meeting were ADB,
AMU, COMESA, ECCAS, IGAD, OAU, ECOWAS, SADC, UNECA and UNEP. The meeting developed
proposals on the following key issues: (a) organizing the preparatory process for the
review of Agenda 21 in Africa (format and participation, scope and review and terms of
reference; strategic approaches to the review process of the implementation of Agenda 21 in
Africa); (b) communication and information strategy; (c) schedule and work plan of the
sub-regional and regional preparatory meetings; (d) modality and schedule for the national
assessment; and (e) resource mobilization strategy.

March 2001: Launching of the African Forum for the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable
Development and the Second Meeting of the Expanded Joint Secretariat

In order to expedite Africa's WSSD preparation processes, the meeting prepared draft terms
of reference for both the sub-regional and regional assessment processes. The meeting
further agreed to recruit a lead consultant who will coordinate the work of the
sub-regional consultants as well as drafting the regional review report and the African
Common Position on the basis of information provided by the members of the Expanded Joint
Secretariat and the Subregional Assessment Reports. The lead regional consultant will be
based within the premises of UNEP's Regional Office for Africa in Nairobi. His/her Terms of
Reference have been prepared.

With regard to documentation, it was agreed that a website for the African process would be
established. A decision-makers' guide will also be prepared and UNEP will provide the
resources for this. The purpose of the guide is to assist the policy makers to understand
and appreciate the process of the 2002 WSSD. The guide will be concise and properly
illustrated, and should be produced as soon as possible. A communication strategy,
including the establishment of a website for Africa's WSSD process was considered and a
follow-up will be looked into by UNECA in collaboration with UNEP/ROA. Also, UNEP/ROA was
charged with the responsibility of establishing a list-server of all the stakeholders of
the WSSD process in order to facilitate communication among them

It was the meeting's view that the following topics should be considered for inclusion in
the African Common Position:
� Eradicating poverty;
� Trade and environment;
� Promoting peace building and governance;
� Promoting synergy between multilateral agreements, including the incorporation of land
degradation and desertification issues;
� Infrastructure and health; and
� Financing of development, including debt issues.

June 2001: African Eminent Persons Regional Roundtable Cairo, 25-27 June 2001

The main objective of the roundtable is to independently discuss practical proposals and
suggest innovative approaches aimed at expediting progress in sustainable development
within regions and globally and the implementation of Agenda 21. The results could be
recommendations for consideration particularly by the regional prepcoms as well as for the
global preparatory meetings for the Summit. The United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Development and the Government of Egypt will convene an African roundtable of
eminent persons in Cairo, 25-27 June 2001. High level participates are expected to prepare
and discuss the following:

� Major achievements in sustainable development in Africa and major constraints in
achieving progress.
� Major challenges for Africa, which have arisen since UNCED in 1992, and the impact of
these challenges.
� Opportunities for Africa, which have arisen since UNCED in making progress on sustainable
� Five specific time-bound (5-10 years) activities that can be undertaken; and related
institutional and financial requirements and sources of support (from Africa and the
International Community).
� Two suggestions for improving the institutional framework in either Africa or globally,
which would assist in furthering sustainable development.

Recent Global Conference Feedback

First Preparatory Committee Meeting 20 April - 2 May 2001
The first meeting of the Summit Preparatory Committee was held from 30 April - 2 May 2001
at the UN Headquarters in New York. This organizational meeting accomplished the following:
(a) Elected, from among all States, a Bureau composed of 10 members, with two
representatives from each of the geographical groups;
E. Mr. Emil Salim, Chairman [Indonesia]
H.E. Ms. Maria Luiza Ribeiro Viotti, Vice-Chairperson [Brazil]
Mr. Richard D. Ballhorn, Vice-Chairman [Canada]
H.E.Mr.Jan K�ra, Vice-Chairman [Czech Republic]
Mr. Ahmed Ihab Gamaleldin, Vice-Chairman [Egypt]
H.E. Ms. Diane Marie Quarless, Vice-Chairperson [Jamaica]
H.E. Mr. Kiyotaka Akasaka, Vice-Chairman [Japan]
Mr. Ositadinma Anaedu, Vice-Chairman [Nigeria]
H.E. Mr. Alexandru Niculescu, Vice-Chairman [Romania]
H.E. Mr. Lars-G�ran Engfeldt, Vice-Chairman [Sweden]
Mr. Chris C. Badenhorst, Ex-Officio [South Africa]
(b) Considered progress in preparatory activities at the local, national, subregional,
regional and international levels, as well as by major groups;
(c) Decided on the specific modalities of its future preparatory meetings;
(d) Considered a process for setting the agenda and determining possible main themes for
the Summit in a timely manner;
A multi-stakeholder panel was held at the beginning of PrepCom I to allow major group
representatives to bring to the organizational discussion the views of their major group
constituencies. Representatives of the Scientific and technological community
(International Council for Science), Business and Industry (International Chamber of
Commerce), Indigenous People (International Indian Treaty Council), Trade Union
(International Labour Organization), Local Authorities (International Council for Local
Environmental Initiatives), Women (Women's Environment and Development Organization),
Farmers (International Federation of Agricultural Producers), Youth (Ministries of Holism),
and the South African NGO Host Committee for the World Summit made statements at the PreCom

PrepCom II is tentatively scheduled to be held at UN Headquarters in New York from 28
January - 8 February 2002. This meeting will start the substantive assessment of progress
at the global level by undertaking the comprehensive review and assessment of progress
achieved in the implementation of Agenda 21 and the Programme for the Further
Implementation of Agenda 21. Early in the course of PrepCom II, a two-day multi-
stakeholder dialogue with all nine major group sectors is planned. The topics of the
stakeholder dialogue will be based on the outline of the Secretary-General's overall review

Showcasing African Initiatives

African Preparatory Meetings 2001
The regional and sub regional preparatory committee meetings for the World Summit on
Sustainable Development in Africa takes place during September and October as per the
following lists. Similar meetings take place in other regions of the world mainly between
June and September 2001. Further details may be obtained from the contact person or at the
WSSD website:

Regional PrepCom: Nairobi, Kenya 15-18 October 2001
Tentative Schedule:
28 August: Civil Society/NGO Segment
29 August: High-Level Multi-Stakeholders' Segment
30-31 August: Regional Preparatory Meeting

Sub Regional PrepComs:
Southern Africa (SADC), Gaborone, Botswana, 3-5 September 2001
Northern Africa (AMU), Tunis, Tunisia, 5-7 September
East Africa (IGAD/COMESA), Djibouti, 10-12 September 2001
Central Africa (ECCAS), Libreville, Gabon, 17-19 September 2001
West Africa (ECOWAS), Abuja, Nigeria, 24-26 September 2001

Contacts: Mr Ousmane Laye, UNECA, P O Box 3001 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Tel: +251 1 515 761
Fax: 251 1 514 416 Email: [54] OR Mr Sekou Toure Email:
[55] and Hamed Haidara Email: [56] UNEP Regional
Office for Africa, P O Box 30552 Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: 254 2 624 285 Fax: 254 2 624 324

Hosting the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg South Africa
The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) in partnership with the
Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) is co-ordinating South African preparations as the host
country. The DEAT has established a Section 21 (Not for Profit) company to handle the
logistics, and a policy unit to develop content, to provide policy advice to the government
and to facilitate intergovernmental and stakeholder interactions. The South African
government is developing a multi-donor package to co-ordinate external support to meet its
obligations as the host and to promote regional preparations. Contact: Johannesburg Earth
Summit 2002 Co. PO Box 783730 Sandton 2146 South Africa Tel: +27 11 303 8685 Fax: +27 11
303 8794 Website: (under construction)

South African NGO component for the World Summit on Sustainable Development
The South African NGO Coalition (SANGOCO) is the umbrella body responsible for the NGO
component in South Africa. SANGOCO has appointed the Rural Development Services Network
(RDSN) as the implementing agent. The RSDN's main tasks are fundraising, facilitating
provincial workshops and coordinating the national sector forum. Contact: c/o PO Box 11383
Johannesburg 2000 Tel: +27 11 403 7324 Fax: +27 11 403 7109 Email:

A intergovernmental organization of developing countries - the South Centre
Born out of the recognition that the development national are not well organized at the
global level and therefore not as effective in mobilizing its bargaining power, the South
Centre was formally constituted in July 1995, under the chairmanship of the late Julius
Nyerere of Tanzania. The current chairman is Luis Fernando Jaramillo for Colombia. At
present, 46 countries are members. Some of the activities include the preparation of policy
papers and studies in response to requests from the Group of 77 and the Non-Aligned
Movement. Topics include foreign direct investment, the reform of the United Nations, the
challenges presented by the WTO agenda and the implementation of the UNCED Agenda 21.
Contact: Street Address: 17-19 chemin du Champ d'Anier 1209 Petit Saconnex, Geneva Postal
Address: CP 228 1211 Geneva 19 SWITZERLAND Tel: +41 22 791 80 50 Fax: +41 22 798 85 31
E-mail: [58] Website: [59]

Burkina Faso's Planning Frameworks, their NSSD and Lessons Learnt
The Letter of Intent on a Policy for Sustainable Human Development (LIPDHD) of 1995
emphasizes the necessity to promote human security by enabling each Burkinabe to have
access to remunerative employment, preventive and curative medical care and environmental,
individual and political food security. To attain the LIPDH objective, the Burkinabe
authorities outlines a Strategic Framework for Poverty Control (SFPC) of 1999, completed
with the support of external partners. The SFPC is the reference framework of cooperation
between Burkina Faso and development partners; it is also the cornerstone of all
development policies. In fact, this framework is aimed at improving poor communities (40,5
%) access to basic social services, especially in the areas of education, health, water and
employment. Another objective is to reduce regional disparities related to the
socio-economic situation and gender. The SFPC goal is to enable the Government to better
enhance aid for development. Examples of planning frameworks are:

Development frameworks and sectoral plans
� the ten year development plan for basic education (2000/2009);
� the scientific research strategic plan;
� the agricultural sector adjustment program;
� the livestock action plan;
� the national strategy and the action program on biologic diversity;
� the national health policy document;
� the action plan for the child survival, protection and development;
� the food security action plan.
Transversal frameworks and plans
� decentralization;
� the national population policy;
� the strategic framework for poverty control;
� the framework document for economic policy;
� the action plan for woman promotion;
� the national environmental action plan;
� the national action program for desertification control.

Lessons learnt from the review process
A wide range of planning frameworks are not familiar with each other and lack adequate
synergy in designing, executing and monitoring processes. Each partner or partners group
tends to set up their own strategy and policy framework for the country in order to meet
the different donors' expectations and requirements

If the national political commitment is not accompanied by significant funding, this could
seriously hinder the functioning of the steering structures. One of the consequences will
be that the steering committees may be compelled to comply with development partners
conditions and expectations in terms of timing of the activities without the necessary
requirements of consultation and participation.

The steering structures capacity to boost an intersectoral action and efficiently assume
their coordination mission is hampered by their institutional positioning, their current
status, their agents' profile and sometimes by their inclination to ensure the contracting
authority of processes.

At another level, the lack of appropriate resources to involve the civil society actors,
the inadequate functioning of democratic organizations and the weak legitimacy of their
representatives have led to a situation in which the grassroots actors are insufficiently
involved and informed. This situation has limited their capacity to elaborate quality
contributions, taking their specific concerns into account. Innovations are underway, but
they essentially require a real leadership capacity involving the institutional development
of public administration.

Contact: Mr. Sambou Coulibaly, Chef de Division des Politiques et Planification Address: 01
B.P. 6486 Ouagadougou 01 BURKINA FASO Tel: (226) 31 24 64 / 31 31 77 Fax: (226) 31 64 91
Email: [60] or [61]

Ghana's Lessons from National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSSD)

National Development Planning Commission (NDPC), Accra and International Institute for
Environment and Development (IIED), London, UK produced a progress report of the NSSD for
the Mid-Term Review Workshop in Thailand during October 2000. The findings are summarized

� The pace of Ghana's development has not matched the depth of its experience with
development programming due to several reasons:
� the concept of implementing development programmes within the framework of a long-term
vision is relatively new as the previous development planing efforts were basically medium
term planning,
� very few of the previous development plans were fully implemented over their planned
� there was relatively little commitment by most previous governments to the development
plans they themselves formulated;
� stakeholder participation in the design of the development plans was either non-existent
or very low and ineffective
� The developers of Ghana-Vision 2020 set out to prepare a medium-term plan but realized
they needed a long-term framework, hence they prepared the National Development Planning
Framework (NDPF). They did not set out to produce a long-term vision.
� For a nation to develop an effective and sustainable strategy for development, it needs
to apply the appropriate methodology for its visioning process.
� A NSSD needs to contain fall-backs as part of the strategy content to address
vulnerabilities to assure resilient and sustainable national livelihood.
� To achieve effective participation and quality of work, terms such as 'strategy' need to
clearly defined.
� The majority of the citizenry are aware that there is something called Vision 2020 that
provides a long-term goal of achieving a middle-income status by the year 2020. However,
they do not know the contents of the Vision nor what it takes to achieve it. Furthermore,
since the NDPF is not very much in the public domain, most people refer to the First Step
as Vision 2020.
� A key finding was that the ministries, departments and multilateral development agencies
have dominated the process of participation in the design of strategy work. Since national
development objectives should be determined through a political process of consulting as
many stakeholders as possible, more direct participation by other stakeholders would have
enhanced the ownership and commitment to the Vision.
� For effective commitment and participation, stakeholders need time to prepare for their
participation in forums and workshops held to elicit their support
� For participation to be effective, outcomes need to be actualised to enhance commitment.
For example, the private sector feels that results from consultative sessions on the
economy have not been completely or effectively implemented resulting a less-than optimal
environment for private sector development.
� The use of 'brainstorming' as the key approach to participation has limitations in
ensuring total participation. The nominal group technique is more effective in eliciting
response from all participants in a group session.
� Full participation by all social or pressure groups is enhanced by advance information,
education and communication campaigns on the process, objectives, methodology and expected
outcomes to all potential participants.
� Although political parties were not in existence in Ghana at the time the NDPF was being
formulated, political parties participated in various stakeholder forums on the economic
policy framework for the First Step of the Ghana-Vision 2020, culminating in their
involvement in the National Economic Forum during which consensus was reached on several
areas of national economic policy
� In terms of donor versus government-led processes, donor-led processes are not
necessarily less participatory than home-grown processes. In addition, there is variation
in the participatory nature of different donor-led processes. For example, the Sustainable
Natural Resource Management Strategy (supported by DFID) was more participatory than the
Comprehensive Development Framework (World Bank promoted) whose participation was limited
only to ministries and department
Contact: National Development Planning Commission Dr. Kobena G. Erbynn Director General P.
O. Box C 633 Cantoments Accra Ghana Tel: (233-21) 773011, 773013 Fax: (233-21) 773046

Tanzania's 23 Strategies for Sustainable Development
Based on the three main pillars of sustainable development (economic social and
environmental strategies), the Tanzanian government through the Planning Commission in the
President's Office has identified the following 23 strategies as part of their National
Strategy for Sustainable Development:

Strategies Dominated by Economic Priorities
� Export Development Strategy and Action Plan
� National Debt Management Strategy (External Debt)
� Export Processing Zone (EPZ)
Strategies Dominated by Social Priorities
� Country Report on Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (Beijing + 5)
Strategies dominated by environmental issues
� The National Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan for Tanzania
� The National Tourism Policy of Tanzania
� The National Energy Policy (2000)
� National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Final Draft (1999)
� National Action Programme to Combat Desertification
� National Environment Action Plan (1994)
� The National Conservation Strategy for Sustainable Development (1995)..
� National Plan of Action to Combat Desertification
� The National Forest Policy
Strategies with Issues cutting across the three pillars of sustainable development
� National Population Policy
� The National Poverty Eradication Strategy
� Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative Medium Term Strategic Plan (MMTSP) 2000-2005
� Civil Service Department Medium Term Strategic Plan
� The Mineral Policy of Tanzania (1997)
� Institutional and Legal Framework for Environmental Management Project (ILFEMP)
� Tanzania Development Vision
� National Fisheries Sector Policy and Strategy Statement
� Tanzania Assistance Strategy (TAS)
� Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
Contact: Economic Research Bureau, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 5096, Tel. 222
(+51) 2410134, Fax: 222 (+51) 2410212, Mobile 0741-336330, E-mail: [62]

Survey of Local Authorities by ICLEI
The survey launched jointly by the Secretariat for the United Nations Commission on
Sustainable Development (UNCSD) and the International Council for Local Environmental
Initiatives (ICLEI) will be conducted in collaboration with Capacity 21/UN Development
programme (UNDP). The survey is part of a broader effort to document the work being done by
local governments and their associations to implement Agenda 21. They will be used to
identify the obstacles that local authorities are facing in their efforts to implement
sustainable development, and to define the kinds of support that they need. The results
will be reported in various publications and posted on the Internet for general access by
local authorities interested in sustainable development. Contact: ICLEI - LA21 Survey, 100
Queen Street W, City Hall, 16thfl W. Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5H 2N2 Tel: +416 392
1739, Fax: +416 392 1478 Email: [63]

Inviting WSSD contributions from the MELISSA Network

Please let us know about the WSSD 2002 activities you are involved with or excellent
initiatives you know about, by providing the following information:
Key activities and plans:_________________________________________________
Logistics: (timeframe, place): _____----________________________________________
Stakeholders involved:__________________________________________________
Expected outcome:_____________________________________________________
Contact details: _______________________________________________________

We invite you to contact the MELISSA Program for further information, contributions,
comments and suggestions at:

Program Co-ordinator, The MELISSA Program, c/o World Bank Country Office, P O Box 12629
Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Tel: 27 12 349-2994 Fax: 27 12 349-2080 Email:
[64] Website: [65]

Although the MELISSA Program has made every possible effort to ensure the accuracy of the
information contained in the KERN InfoBrief, the program cannot be held liable for any
misrepresentation or inaccuracies.

Bridget McBean
The MELISSA Program/ World Bank Office in South Africa
P O Box 12629, Hatfield, 0028, Pretoria, South Africa
Tel (+27 12) 349-2994 Fax (+27 12) 349-2080
email: [66] Website: [67]

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