Tuesday, April 10, 2012


cc: "francis.zwiers@ec.gc.ca" <francis.zwiersatXYZxyzgc.ca>
date: Mon Apr 18 08:01:43 2005
from: Phil Jones <p.jonesatXYZxyz.ac.uk>
subject: RE: Global warming
to: Francis Zwiers <Francis.ZwiersatXYZxyzgc.ca>, "Fudge, Dennis WLAP:EX" <Dennis.Fudge@gov.bc.ca>

Hopefully Francis' colleague will be able to answer.
I am also not qualified to answer.
At 21:16 15/04/2005, Francis Zwiers wrote:

Hi Dennis,
I do not have the expertise to respond to this question, but I will pass it onto a
colleague (an expert on aerosols) who may be able to respond.
Cheers, Francis
At 14:07 14/04/2005, Fudge, Dennis WLAP:EX wrote:

Sorry to bother you, considering your positions, but I thought if anyone had an answer
for this, you two would be the best bet.
The following web pages are articles on the transport of black soot to the arctic which
melts the snow and causes global warming, in which I assume you are already aware of
this event.

Now the question of the day.....
Does this black soot increase or decrease the rate of fresh snow melting?
Based on what you were learn in school this answer is quite obvious. But, the albedo of
the ultraviolet light on fresh snow is high, and low for infrared/microwaves. Based on
Oke, 1987, a reverse exist for soil and vegetation. Which is responsible for melting
snow, short waves or long waves? Also, the top portion of soot on top of the snow only
heats up (I believe soot has a low conductivity) and that heat may rise into the air
rather than being transfer to the snow. I am not certain how efficient that would be
when dealing with very fine particles. During the spring, I have seen black particles on
snow but the clean snow surrounding it seem to be melting faster. Polar bears, arctic
foxes and many other resident arctic and Antarctic animals have white coats. They
actually absorb more heat from the sun and surrounding environment than darker-colored
objects. Which could be due to microwaves generating more heat than ultraviolet
wavelengths. Oke also stated that the maximum absorption of radiation is just below the
surface during the day which would be the site of maximum heating and highest
temperature. Coating the surface with fine soot may interfere with this heating.
Most people don't question this because it seems too obvious to question (Black surface
in the summer is hotter than a white surface). Perhaps at high solar radiation intensity
the short waves are the dominant factor and at low solar radiation the infrared is the
dominant factor. I am not saying that this theory is correct but it may be worth looking
at further, if it have not already been examined.

Dennis Fudge
Air Pollution Meteorologist
Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection
If you woke up breathing, congratulations! You have another chance!

Francis Zwiers, Chief
Canadian Ctr for Climate Modelling and Analysis
Meteorological Service of Canada
c/o University of Victoria
PO Box 1700, STN CSC
Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2
Phone: (250)363-8229
Fax: (250)363-8247
Web: [3]http://www.cccma.bc.ec.gc.ca

Prof. Phil Jones
Climatic Research Unit Telephone +44 (0) 1603 592090
School of Environmental Sciences Fax +44 (0) 1603 507784
University of East Anglia
Norwich Email p.jonesatXYZxyz.ac.uk

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